A REVIEW OF LITERATURES ON CONTRACEPTIVE USAGE IN NIGERIA
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This is a thorough compilation of current literature reviews and extant studies carried out on Contraceptives use among women or among female students in Nigeria. The materials is prepared to ease your quest or search of readily available materials for your literature reviews during your project writing process, find attached unique contents with current citations from various authors to help write your research without too much stress. It covers both the Conceptual Reviews, Theoretical Framework and Empirical Studies. Kindly read the table of contents below before making payment for this materials if it suits your research needs.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Concept of contraceptives
Types of Contraceptives and their Risks
- Hormonal Contraceptive Methods
- Hormonal Contraceptive patch
Risks of Contraceptive patch
Depo-Provera Contraceptive injections
Risks of contraceptives injection (Depo-Provera)
Hormonal Contraceptive implant (Nexplanon)
Risks of Contraceptive Implant
Intrauterine Contraceptive Devices
Risks of using an intrauterine device (IUD)
Voluntary Surgical Contraception
Barrier contraceptive methods
- Cervical Caps
iii. Contraceptive Sponges
Risks of barrier contraceptive methods
Advantages of Contraceptives
Disadvantages of Contraceptives use
Purpose of Contraceptives
Knowledge of Risks of Contraceptives use
Prevention of the risks of contraceptives
Concept of Contraceptives
Contraception is the use of various devices, drugs, agents, sexual practices, or surgical procedure used to interfere with the normal sequence of events in the process of reproduction to prevent conception or unwanted pregnancies (Adelaja, 2002).The current trend of contraceptives risks is a major national concern, it is affecting the health and safety of women (Henry, 2011).The World Health Organization (WHO, 2013) state that contraceptives allow individuals and couples to anticipate and attain their desired number of children and the spacing and timing of their births, this is achieved through use of contraceptive methods. A woman‘s ability to space and limit her pregnancies has a direct impact on her health and well-being as well as on the outcome of each pregnancy. Contraception of one form and another has probably been in existence for as long as human babies have been born, and maybe longer. In the beginning it was rituals and witch doctors and it has slowly developed into more reliable methods (Jamabo, Kpai, Olabanji &Titilayo, 2012).
Contraception refers to the deliberate prevention of pregnancy using any of several methods; contraceptives such as condoms also function to protect its users from contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (OlugbengaBello, Abodunrin, and Adeomi, 2011; Obinna, 2011).Contraceptives that are reliable and safe (irrespective of whether they are reversible or not or designed for males or females) thus offer sexually active people the chance to lead a healthy sex life (Ogunbanjo and Bogaert 2004). The ideal contraceptive according to Guillebaud (2004) should be 100% effective, safe, convenient; it should be reversible, cheap, easily accessible, and acceptable to all religions and cultures. However, no form of contraceptive method, other than abstinence, has been proven to provide 100% protection in terms of pregnancy prevention or protection from STIs. Extensive research and clinical trials have led to improvement in existing methods of contraception and the development of new, more effective and acceptable methods with fewer side effects (Monjok et al, 2010). However, the level of effectiveness offered by contraceptives varies (Trussell and Raymond, 2012).
Caroline (2013), reported that it was the ancient Greeks who first realized that male and female union caused pregnancy and since then many methods have been used with varying degrees of success, a wide range of products have been used as barriers such as lemon juice and essence from mahogany husks, acacia tree and honey, oil of cedar and lead ointment, frankincense and olive oil, salt, cabbage or willow leaves, onion juice, peppermint oil and, soft wool. However, they are often used in conjunction with other methods, particularly the diaphragm and as such prove quite useful. Vaginal douches have been used after intercourse since the 1600s; however, they do not seem to be at all effective (Adelaja, 2002).
In the Middle Ages Serbian women would dip their fingers in the first bath water of the infant; the number of fingers which were dipped in would equal the number of years of sterility, brides in the Baltic Island of Oland touched the cervix with as many fingers as they would like to have children. Other methods used were holding breath at ejaculation, inducing sneezing, weight gain, the use of amulets, the woman jumping backwards seven times, the woman spitting three times in the mouth of a frog, the woman eating bees and the woman remaining passive during intercourse, a wide range of pillsand potions were also recommended. Indian women used a combination of seeds, leaves and roots and quotations such as “one tola of powdered palm leaf and red chalk taken with cold water on the fourth day makes a woman sterile with certainty” are found in ancient literature. The literature of the ancient Hebrews includes a mixture described as, “Alexandrian gum, liquid alum and garden crocus, each in the weight of a denar, are mixed together. Three cups of wine with this medicine are good for gonorrhea, and do not sterilized (Elizabeth, 2002).
Caroline, (2013) reported that abortion is one of the earliest forms of birth control. Obviously the methods were crude and often with fatal results for the mother. Generally though, even as long ago as the tenth century it was only accepted with good reason generally if the mother’s health was at risk or the pregnancy had been the result of rape. Tammy, (2011) stated that Egyptians have the first form of female birth control. The Egyptians are given credit for the contraceptive known as the pessaries which were made of sodium carbonate, crocodile dung and honey; the pessaries were made into a ―concoction‖ and placed inside the vagina to kill the sperm. Moving ahead to the more recent history of contraceptives in 1844 the Goodyear man (yes the one who invented tires); Charles Goodyear is also given credit for the invention of reusable male condoms. The condoms were made of rubber. Once the condom was used, it was washed anointed with petroleum jelly and stored in a special wooden box until next time.
Types of Contraceptives and their Risks
Hormonal Contraceptive Methods
The introduction of the first hormonal contraceptive was one of the most important events of the twentieth century for women. The availability of Oral Contraceptives (OCs) provided women with greater control over their reproductive lives. As of oral contraceptives usage steadily increased, so did concern over health risks associated with their use. In the four decades since the first of oral contraceptives, women seeking contraception have benefited from the development of non-oral hormonal delivery systems, including injectables, intrauterine devices, implants, a vaginal ring, and a contraceptive patch. Women and men have long tried many methods to prevent pregnancy prior to modern method of birth control; women relied on withdrawer or periodic abstinence (Kirsten, 2013). It is hoped that this expanding menu of choices affords women opportunities to find methods better suited to their individual needs, clinicians should continually evaluate their patients’ hormonal contraceptive needs, and provide adequate counseling so that every woman is afforded the opportunity to achieve contraceptive success reported by (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, USA, 2005).
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