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| Format: Ms Word | 1-5 Chapters | Table of Content|


Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE

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This research work is based on a socio-pragmatic analysis of Ibibio folksongs is a song origination among and transmitted orally by the common people of a particular community or society often occurring in a number of versions and usually characterized by a simple melody, narrative style and verse repetition. In some part of the world including Akwa Ibom State, there is a neglect of folksongs, due to increased interest in modern music. This research work will highlight the ultimate goal or research which is to promote Ibibio language and preserving its cultural heritage for the benefit of the present and future generations and the society at large. Folksong deals with almost every kind of activity such as love, jealousy, war, political or religious beliefs, history, accompaniment to hard physical work, acquisition of property, birth, marriage and death. This research work will achieve its desired aim in the daily life activities of Ibibio people and the society.








This chapter will focus on the background of the study, historical background of the Ibibio people, statement of the research problem, the research objectives, the significance of the study and delimitation of the study.


1.1       Background of the Study

            In Africa, Ibibio like most other cultures is not void of songs. Folksongs are generally believed to be the expression of the whole singing community. This is because songs permeate every aspect of life and culture. Folksongs is a song that originating among and transmitted orally by the common people of a particular community or society from one generation to another.

Folksong commonly derive their names from the different occasions on which they are performed Chukwuma (1994).

In Ibibio society, folksongs are classified into different categories such as praise songs, tale songs, work songs, omen songs, satirical songs, lullaby songs, games songs, deterrent song and heroic songs. Adali-Morty (1967). Comments that: “These songs can be song only on the appropriate occasion. One does not sing a mourning song unless a death has actually occurred. Even to sing a farming song at home in the village, or sing a hunting song without a cause, one has to apologies first to the gods. It is sacrilegious to sing these when feeling, have not been aroused or when it is not intended to arouse feelings”.

Ibibio folksongs are varied and are as numerous as the occasions that give rise to them. Uya (1994). Has it that Ibibio folksongs are classified into work songs, children play songs marriage songs, dirges, vulgar songs, chants and invocation.

Ibibio folksongs are part and parcel of a communities customs, beliefs, and tradition as they have been entrenched to the people’s consciousness.  Each generation team the songs, Imbibe the values and meanings conveyed by the song. The song serve as bridges linking the past to the present and from generation to generation.

Omibiyi-Obidike, 2001 and Samuel, (2012). Traditional ethnic music, notably folksongs, as a culture indicator provides an avenue for clear expression to the level complexity, and a set of norms differentiating and sharply characterizing cultures when analyses of their song texts are systematically embarked upon.

Kennedy (1980) defined folksongs as songs of Unknown authorship passed orally from one generation to another, sung without accompaniment and often found in variants (of words and tunes) in different part of a country.

Folksongs like folktales appear to be universal and exist in many community. They have no known authors, the songs are as old as the people, and are local to particular community. They are regarded as communal property because the authors are not known. They are part and parcel of the community customs. The folksongs reflect things found in the community. Belief and traditions and they have been entrenched into the people’s consciousness and belief, each generation of people learn the songs and entrenched in the past from generation to generation.


1.3       Statement of the Research Problem

This has to do with the study of lbibio folksongs some of Ibibio community, this research is to analyze folksongs socially, examine the uniqueness of lbibio folksongs. It also examines how folksongs transfer message to the people, as such, this research will go along way in preserving the folksongs of Ibibio, so that the present and upcoming generation will be exposed to folksongs of their communities.

This research of Ibibio folksongs is seen through the eyes of an Ibibio. It is not the song of Nigeria, but the research is convincing that there are many aspects of Ibibio song which could be applied to Nigerian music in particular Africa in general.

Akpabot (1975:2) quotes Major Leonard, a British administrative officer  in Eastern Nigeria for many years described the Ibibios as “a wild and truculent people about whom it was impossible to collect any information “but this research point of concern is this quote from Merriam (1959) who suggested that it is only in dealing with song as an aspect of culture that truly penetrating studies can be made; although the collector of songs serves a useful purpose, the full rewards in the research of song lie in the depth analysis of musical pattern of culture (P.850).

In other words, Ibibio traditional folk song has not gained much attention in the contemporary African art music for people to enjoy and appreciate. This is the problem that the researcher wants to address in the course of this research.


1.4.      Research Aims and Objectives

Some of the objectives of this research include:

  1. To identify various types of folksongs in Ibibio
  2. To carryout the socio-pragmatic analysis of Ibibio folksongs
  3. To unveil the folksongs inherent in Ibibio land
  4. To unveil the importance of folksongs to the community.


1.5       Research Questions

            This research desires to answer the following questions:

  1. What are the contents of folksongs in Ibibio?
  2. What are the socio pragmatic analysis of Ibibio? Folksongs to the community.
  3. What are the types of folksongs indigenous to the community
  4. Why do we have folksongs?



1.6       Significance of the Study

            This research would be of immense significance in several ways, it will be beneficial to scholars and students who are interested in folksongs, providing information to students in higher institution. Moreover, it will create avenue for entertainment. Traditional folksong of this type will energize the people to dance according to the rhythm of the song. It will entertain and bring joy and the culture owners, especially the people of Ibibio. Through the research of this folksongs, other ethnic groups will have more ideas on Ibibio melodies, rhythmic and harmonic style in musical theories, because different Nigerian music types have disappeared without any trace of their histories.

This research would provide necessary information to the students, scholars, musicians, government authorities etc. on ways to improve Ibibio folksongs and also properly orientate Ibibio about their culture.


1.7       Delimitation of the Study

            The research work will focus on some Ibibio folksongs and translate them for pragmatic analysis.


1.8       Definitive of Term

Socio-pragmatic: Is the study of the ways in which pragmatic meaning reflect specific local conditions of language use. 

Folk: Refer to people in the rural community.

Folksong: Is a music transmitted by words of mouth or music of the lower class with unknown authorship preserved and transmitted by oral traditions.

Pragmatic: According to Yule (1996:1) pragmatics is concerned with the study of meaning as communicated by a speaker or writer and interpreted by a listener or reader.





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