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A SOCIOLINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF EKID TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

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ABSTRACT

This study focused on Sociolinguistics Analysis of Traditional Communication Systems in Esit Ekid. Ekid is one the languages spoken in Akwa Ibom State. Genetically it belongs to the lower cross group of languages. The data for this research were collected using elicitation method. In analyzing the data, descriptive method of analysis was used. Findings revealed that the people of Esit Ekid had traditional communication systems and those systems are still in use today. But further findings revealed that due to the infiltration of modern religions, migration and modern forms of communications, it has reduced the effectiveness of some of the traditional communication systems. Based on these findings, the study recommended that the government should make policies that will enhance more effective use of the traditional communication systems. Then, the people of Esit Ekid themselves should arise and value what they have.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover page –       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

Title page –        –        –        –        –                  –        –        –        –        i

Declaration –       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Certification –     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Dedication –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Acknowledgement –    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Abstract-    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Preamble –    –        –        –        –                  –        –        –        –        1

1.2.2 Occupation –       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        9

1.2.3 Cultural Heritage –      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        9

1.24 Deities         –        –        –        –        –                  –        –        –        10

1.2.5 The Language –   –        –        –        –        –                  —       –        10

1.3 Statement of the Research problem –          –        –        –        –        –        10

1.4 Objective of the study     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        11

1.5 Research questions          –        –        –        –        –                  –        –        12

1.6 Significant –  –        –        –        –        –                  —       –        –        13

1.7  Delimitation          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        14

1.8 Definition of term –        –        –        –        –        –                  —       15

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OR RELATED LITERATURE

1.2 Introduction –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –                  17

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction –        –        –        –        –                  –        –        –        35

3.2 Research        –        –        –        –        –        –                  —       –        35

3.3 Research Population       —       –        –        –        –        –        –        36

3.4 Sample and sampling procedure –    –        –        –        –        –        36

3.5 Tools for data collection –        –        –        –                  –        –        37

3.6 Method of data collection         –        –        –        –                  —       38

3.7 Validity of Reliabity       –        –        –        –        –                  —       38

3.8 Procedure for data analysis –   –        –        –        –        –        –        39

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1 Preamble –    –        –        –        –        –        –                  –        —       41

4.2 Data Analysis –      –        –        –        –        –        –        —                 51

4.3 Discussion of Findings   —       –        –        –                  —       –        65

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION OF FINDINGS

5.1 Introduction  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        73

5.2 Summary –    –        –        –        –                  –        –        –        –        73

5.3 Conclusion    –        –        –        –        –        –                  –        –        74

5.4 Recommendation   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        75

References –         –        –        –        –        –                  –        –        –        77

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • PREAMBLE

Tradition is the handling down of information, beliefs, and customs by word of mouth or by example from one generation to another without written instruction. This is the oral tradition.

Oral tradition is the first and still most widespread mode of human communication. For millennia prior to the invention of writing, which is a very recent phenomenon in the history of human kind, oral tradition served as the sole means of communication available for forming and maintaining societies and their institutions. For more, than “Just talking” Oral tradition refers to a dynamic and highly diverse oral medium for evolving, storing, and transmitting knowledge, art and ideas.

The understanding of oral tradition in our contemporary society does not really depend on written documents, which are at best written replications of oral traditions. But it depends so much on the personal experience derived though personal study of cultures of the society that depends solely upon oral tradition as a major means of communication. The fields of anthropology, folklore, linguistics and other ethnographic fields have worked directly with such societies to learn how this textless communication operates. This makes it specifically clear that language which is the most important index of identity to everyone who possesses it is very significant in oral tradition. According to Franchetto (2001) as cited in Franchetto (2006:192) language serves as “a diacritical marker of individual and collective social and political  identity” As a matter of fact, it is the major tool in communication upon which oral tradition is stringed.

Communication is a discrete aspect of human enterprise. Here, communication refers to the exchange of meaning between individuals through a common system of symbols. Richard I. A. (1928) in Encyclopedia Britannica article (2012) states that:

Communication takes place when one’s mind so acts upon its environment that another mind is influenced, and in that other mind and experience occurs which is like the experience in the first mind, and is caused in part by that experience.

  • Background of the Study
    • Historical Background of the Esit Ekid people

Esit Ekid is a local Government Area in Akwa Ibom State with administrative headquarters in the town of Uquo. Esit Ekid local Government Area is in Akwa Ibom South Senatorial district alongside Eastern Obolo, Eket, Ibeno, Ikot Abasi, Mbo, Mkpat Enin, Okobo, Onna, Oron, Udung Uko and Urue Offong/Oruko Local Government Areas. Esit Ekid also forms a federal Constituency alongside Onna, Ekid and Ibeno Local Government Areas.

Esit Ekid Local Government Area covers an area of 168 square kilometers and is bound by Ekid Local Government Area in the West, Ibeno Local Government Area in the South, Mbo Local Government Area in the East, Urue Offong/Oruko and Okobo Local Government Areas in the North-East and Nsit Ubium Local Government Area in the North-West, Esit Ekid is situated at the extreme South of Akwa Ibom State and it extends across the south Eastern store of Atlantic Ocean.

 

  • Statement of the Research problem

Sociolinguistic analysis of traditional communication system in the aspect where the use of minor dialects are spoken have often been neglected due to the limitation of interest, only a few research work have been conducted on the (Ekid) language because Ekid is yet to be significantly Ekid as a language have been in existence yet no much recognition importance is attached to their traditional practices and system. The essence of this research is to examine the different communication systems in Ekid language community before Westernization, it will ascertain the cultural and traditional embodiments of such system to the community/society at large currently. In addition, it will be observed whether the owners of the language still attach any importance to those systems of communication due to the advent of modern media? Have they completely relegated the aesthetic values of traditional communication systems and present its sociolinguistic significances of Ekid as a language with its people.

  • Objectives of the study

This research work is aimed at achieving the following:

  1. To ascertain the extent at which traditional communication systems are relevant to the people of Esit Ekid.
  2. To assess the existence of traditional communication systems in Esit Ekid.
  • To investigate the sociolinguistic implication of traditional communication systems in Esit Ekid.
  1. To ascertain the problems that hinders the effective use of traditional communication system in Esit Ekid.
  2. To investigate the level at which traditional communication systems are used by the people of Esit Ekid.
    • Research Questions

This work of research is carried out as a means of examining the different traditional communication systems that had existed and ones still in existence in Ekid and the following questions are answerable:

  1. What are the importance of traditional communication systems to the people of Esit Ekid?
  2. Does the traditional communication systems exist in Esit Ekid?
  • What are the socio-linguistic implications of traditional communication system in Esit Ekid.
  1. What are the problems that limits the effective use of traditional communication systems in Esit Ekid?
  2. What are the levels at which traditional communication system are used by the people of Esit Ekid.
    • Significance of study

This research work shall be significant to both the people of Esit Ekid and researcher in the following ways:

  1. It will serve as an enlightenment document, for both the community of Esit Ekid and the society at large on how to cherish and preserve their rich cultural tools.
  2. The indigene of Esit Ekid will come to appreciate the aesthetic values embedded in the different means by which they have communicating.
  • The growing generation will be exposed to the traditional communication systems through this research work.
  1. This work of research will revive the interest of the people of Esit Ekid on their different traditional communication systems which they had neglected.
  2. This work will project the socio-cultural image of the community of Esit Ekid and their rich embodiments.
  3. It shall serve as a preference material for students in the department of linguistics and Nigerian languages.
  • It is vital for language documentation/preservation.
  • This research work shall add more to the existing body of knowledge and it will serve as a motivational work for researchers to research more on the sociolinguistic implications of traditional communication system in Esit Ekid.
    • Delimitation of study

Some major constraints were encountered during the course of this work of research which resulted to the researcher limiting the scope of this study to the elicitation of data from three (3) indigenes of the language community on the socio-linguistic records of traditional communication systems. Questionnaires were also used; which were distributed to some indigenes within the age bracket of 25-75 which were successfully answered. In addition, educational materials already written in other language that relate to this topic were also used.

  • Definition of Terms

In the course of carrying out this research work, the following key words are fundamental, they are:

  1. Sociolinguistics
  2. Tradition
  3. Communication
  4. Traditional communication
  5. System
  6. Trudgill (1974:32), Defines sociolinguistics as “that part of linguistic which is concerned with language as a social and cultural phenomenon”. It investigates the field of language and society and has close connection with the social psychology, anthropology and sociology.
  7. Tradition according to Wikipedia is “a belief or behaviour passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past”.
  8. Fernando Gonzalez Rey defines communication as “a process of social interaction, through signs and signs system, product of human activities. Men uses communication to express; their needs, aspirations, criteria, emotions etc.
  9. Traditional communication can be defined as a communication which involves all the social conventions and practices, mode of social organizations whose chief concerns may not be with communication but with other activities.
  10. System is a collection of elements or components that are organized for a common purpose according to Alexander Backlund. 47

 

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