A STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF PARENTS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
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The objective of this study was to find out the influence of socio-economic status of parent on the performance of secondary school students in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo state. It is the fact that the home in which they comes from has an effect on his/her academic performance in school. Questionnaires were given to students to enable the researcher appraise the issue of the effect of socio-economic status of parents on the academic performance. Simple percentage was used to analyze the data collected. This was done to test effectively the three research questions. Is there a relationship between the facilities provided at home and the academic performance of students? Is there a relationship between the occupation of parents and parental encouragement on the academic performance of students? Is there a relationship between the type of family and academic performance of students. From the analysis of the data, the following findings emerged. Facilities provided at home have effect on students/ academic performance. Parent occupations also influence students’ performance in school. The type of family does not affect student’s performance.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The relevance of education in the upbringing of children cannot be overemphasized. Since the children of today constitutes the leaders of tomorrow, there is the need for every society to educate its children as this will contribute to the overall growth and development, thereby reducing the rate of crime and illiteracy in the society. For this is to make manifest, certain things should be inculcated in the individual such as skills, habits, attitude, moral values and prohibits disapproved ones. There should be a combination of formal and informal education given to them in order for them to make a constructive development of the society and themselves.
The interest of educators is well pronounced as to what influence the socio-economic status of parents have on their behavior and learning ability. It is believed that if such influence exists, it should vary widely according to the sophistication of the learning contingencies provided by such factor.
But what we see around these days, nothing but nonchalant attitudes of the parents towards their children education. This is done in various ways, such as parents no longer stay at home to see after the affairs of their children, simply because of the guests by for the means of survival. Due to the fact that these children are not properly cared for, some of them grow up to create problems for the family and at times to the society entirely. This is simply from their unwillingness towards the educational pursuit. Also academic performance depending on the availability of learning materials or facilities, funds and otherwise in situation whereby students from school A perform better in terms of academic than school B, students lie on the above mentioned problems. So without parents not being ready to train their children, their performance in school might be discouraging due to the theory of individual differences. Even when some are being cared for properly, you discover that they still not cope with the system thereby leading to their failure or poor academic performance.
The home is viewed as one of the factors that cause poor performance of students in secondary schools. The problems of why children achieve of fail to achieve in school has always been of interest to philosophers. The home background of students, physical condition of home, genetic and endowment, poor methodology of teacher have been put forth and possible answer and has received a great deal of attention. Socio-economic background is one of the greatest factors that influence secondary school students.
With these observations, the poor performance of secondary school students in school work could be traced to the schools’ parental attitudes, socio-economic status, family size etc. the main aim of this study is to examine the influence of socio-economic background of parent on the academic performance of secondary school students in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo state. Confidentially, the researcher intends to provide solutions to most of these problems above in the course of study.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The failure of parents to recognize and realize that the ability of their children to perform well is greatly influenced by the home and this is a serious problem because of their belief that the standard of education of nowadays has fallen. The gap in performance between students and academic excellence constitute a great source of worry and serious concern as well as discomfiture to both parents, schools mangers, policy makers and various governments responsible for the education of student’s in secondary school schools.
Experience has shown that among the secondary school student’s there exist some differences which influence students’ academic performance, such as some students being able to pay their school fees promptly, while others were often sent away for nonpayment of school fees, some students have problem with the provision of school uniform but others do not. Likewise, some students were motivated by their parents through the provision of educational materials like text books and exercise books, others were not, where as some students come to school properly feed, others not.
Some scholars have argued that the immediate and remote causes of the problem militating against the influence of socio-economic status of students’ performance in secondary schools. The governments to some extent also contribute to the poor economy of the country making parents not able to send their children to school, and also socio-economic status, family size, educational background, influence of home, place of residence, family structure, influence of peer group etc.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of carrying out this study is to examine the influence of socio-economic status of parents on the academic performance of secondary school students and also to know the extent to which educational status of parents affect students’ academic performance. This is why the study is being carried out to suggest possible solutions that would help to solve the problems in the society.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Some of the research questions on the study influence of socio-economic status of parents on the academic performance of secondary school students in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo state are;
- Does socio-economic status affect the academic performance of students?
- Do you think parents contribute to students’ performance in school?
- Do parents’ occupations affect students’ performance in school?
- Do you think family size influence students’ academic performance?
- Do you think family structure influence academic performance of students?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The work of this nature when completed may help the parents to be aware of the effect the family has on children and how such affect the child positively or negatively in relation to their academic performance. From the available recommendations, they will be able to adopt measures of bringing up there in such a way that they will perform well academically. Similarly, it is likely to encourage parents to make their children relatively comfortable in schools. This study also could aid children of various families to be aware and bear in mind with their parents in ability to provide them with all the necessary requirements in schools, and also sympathize with them in family problems and situations. This study will be of help to the educational planner in designing school programmes and curriculum to the call of their parents towards their children’s academic performance. It will also help to awaken the family even the society at large from their slumbering state of the educational career of their youth. The discovered information of this researcher will help the teachers, educators and curriculum specialists and school administrators to plan ways or means of meeting the needs of children from different home backgrounds. This will also help the children to see their own ways of contributing to their poor performance in school. The society through this finding can help to provide educational facilities such as good classrooms, qualified teachers, chairs, desks and apparatus for practical etc. in order to alliance the educational standard of the children.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is restricted to Oredo Local Government Area of Edo state. The researcher will focus on secondary schools in the above Mentioned local government. As the title of the research reads, the research will be limited to only Edo state and it should be noted that the work may not represent some local governments and not all people during the course of the research exercise will cooperate, hence the research is bound to experience limitation such as:
Time: the time at the disposal of the researcher which was allocated for the study was a major limitation as the researcher had to combine other academic activities with the study.
Finance: The finance at the disposal of the researcher in the course of the study could not permit wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research materials available to the researcher at the time of this study was insufficient, thereby limiting the study.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
STATUS: the legal position of a person, group or country.
SOCIO: connected with the trade industry and development of the wealth of a country, area or a society.
SOCIO-ECONOMIC: Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how societies progress, stagnate, or regress because of their local or regional economy, or the global economy.
SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS: This refers to position of recognition which one finds him in the society. Such a position may not be hereditary but acquired through personal efforts like education, wealth, occupation and social class.
INFLUENCE: the effect that something has on the way a person thinks or behaves or on the way that something works or develops.
PERFORMANCE: the act of performing a play, concert, or other forms of entertainment
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: Academic achievement or (academic) performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals. Cumulative GPA and completion of educational degrees such as High School and bachelor’s degrees represent academic achievement.
FAMILY: Is a unit comprising of husband, wife and children.
FAMILY SIZE: The number of people in the family.
FAMILY SYSTEM: This includes monogamy and may be nuclear or extended family.
HOME ENVIRONMENT: This refers to parental experience and aspirations for children, objects and material conditions in the home for comfort and also specific behavioral processes conducive to learning.
EDUCATIONAL UPBRINGING: This refers to education of children and how they perform in academics when subjected to test or examination.
EDUCATIONAL STATUS: This term is used for social processes in which one achieve social competence and individual growth, carried on in a selected, controlled sitting which can be institutionalized as a school or college.
OCCUPATIONAL STATUS: Personal trade, vocation or principal means of earning living.
PARENTAL ATTITUDE: Parents disposition to respond in a characteristics way to some stimulus in their social environment. Some responses determine the way and manner their children are brought up by them.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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