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Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE

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The study is on a survey of information and communication technology in basic science instruction in Jema’a Local Government Area of Kaduna State, in order to establish a fact on its implications to e-learning. Data were collected from 133 Junior Secondary School Three (JSS3) students from four Secondary Schools in Jema’a Local Government Area. Questionnaire was used for data collection that were analysed descriptively and quantitatively using frequency, percentages, charts, and cross tabulation chi-square to test the null hypotheses. The results showed that Though, Nigeria experiences the problems of integration and application of ICT tools in instructions due to many factors such as; limited ICT facilities in Nigerian Schools, Lack of technically experienced tutors, Problem of Electricity, Environmental Factors, High Cost of ICT tools, and Lack of professional skills. The study concludes that, effort should be made by government to proffer solutions to the problems stated in this study, so as to improve Nigerian education at all levels. The researcher called on stakeholders in educational field to encourage tutors, facilitators, and students, to develop positive attitude toward the use of ICT tools at all levels of education in Nigeria.

                                            CHAPTER ONE


1.1 Background of the Study

The place of ICTs in today’s education and the world at large cannot be underestimated. The educational system in Nigeria has been sub-divided into different levels mainly pre-primary, primary and tertiary Levels (National) Policy on Education 2004). Information and community technologies (ICT) have become key tools and had a revolution impact on how we see the world and how we live. The importance of information and communication technology (ICT) in this 21st century is indispensable in teaching and learning. It can improve education quality, expand learning opportunities and make education accessible at all levels if education in Nigeria (National Policy on Education 2004).

ICT is a revolution that involves the use of computers, internet and other telecommunication technology in every aspect of human endeavor (Bandele (2006). According to Bandele (2006), ICT is a simply about sharing and having access to data with ease. It is regarded as the super highway through which formation is transmitted and shared by people all over the world. Ozoji in Jimoh (2007) defined ICT as the handling and processing of information (texts, images, graphs, instruction etc) for use, by means of electronic and communication devices such as computers, cameras, telephone. Ofodu (2007) also refer to ICT as electronic or computerized devices, assisted by human and interactive materials that can be used for a wide range of teaching and learning as well as for personal use. From these definitions, ICT could therefore be defined as processing and sharing of information using all kinds of electronic device, an umbrella that includes all technologies for the manipulations and communication of information. The use of ICT in education has become a subject that has been mostly discussed in the 21st century. Most educational institutes want to adopt ICT into their institutions as ICT is believed to improve instructional delivery and learning environment, (onwuagboke, singh & fook, 2015).

Basic Science education is essential for an individual to be able to access and apply information. Such ability must find include ICTs in the global village. The state of basic science education for adolescents is at an important crossroads, we are faced with enormous scientific challenges that the youth of today will have to confront. The Economic Commission for Africa has indicated that the ability to access and use information is no longer a luxury, but a necessity for development. Unfortunately, many developing countries, especially in Africa, are still low in ICT application and use (Aduwa-Ogiegbean and Iyamu, 2005). The field of education has been affected by ICTs, which have undoubtedly affected teaching, learning, and research (Yusuf, 2005). A great deal of research has proven the benefits to the quality of education (Al-Ansari, 2006). ICTs have the potential to accelerate, enrich, and deepen skills, to motivate and engage students, to help relate school experience to work practices, create economic viability for tomorrow’s workers, as well as strengthening teaching and helping schools change (Davis and Tearle, 1999; Lemke and Coughlin, 1998; cited by Yusuf, 2005).

The use of ICT in teaching and learning Basic Science is a relevant and functional way of providing education to learners in order to assist them in imbibing the required capacity for the world of work (Kosoko-Oyedeko and Tella, 2010). Ajayi (2008) posited that with the aid of ICT, teachers can take students beyond traditional limits, ensure their adequate participation in teaching and learning process and create vital environments to experiment and explore. However, the application of ICT needs expensive hardware and software which becomes the big obligations for schools and parents. It is also necessary that both teachers and learners should have basic technology knowledge before they apply ICT. This new development is a strong indication that the era of teachers without ICT skills are gone. Unfortunately, most teachers today do not have technological training to guide their students in the use of computers to enhance their learning achievement.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Observation has shown that there are no functional internet facilities in most of the secondary schools. This appears to hinder the extent of teachers’ exposure to the use of ICT in teaching Basic Science. Teachers as well as students appear not to be knowledgeable in the use of ICT because there appears not to be any official training for both the teachers and the students in the schools. It has also been observed that most secondary schools in Jema Local Government Area lack computer literate teachers; irregular power supply appears to thrive in the schools. Moreover it seems the schools could not purchase computers for use because of inadequate fund. Besides, the non-inclusion of the ICT programmes in teachers’ training curriculum seems to be another major challenge facing the adoption of ICT in secondary schools. Various studies have shown the multifaceted problems militating against the effective use of ICT in the teaching learning process in schools. These include: irregular power supply (Yusuf, 2005; Ofodu, 2007); inadequate computer literate teachers (Oyebanji, 2003; Dabesaki, 2005; Kwache, 2007); inadequate fund (Ogunmilade, 1988; Nwite, 2007), reluctance to change (Selwyn, 1997) among others. This led to the survey of information and communication Technology in Basic Science Instruction in Jema Local Government Area in Kaduna State.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to conduct a survey on Information and Communication Technology in Basic Science Instruction. The specific objectives are:

  1. To examine the level of availability and the capacity of using the ICT facilities in Basic Science Instruction in Jema Local Government Area.
  2. To investigated the perceived benefits of using ICT for teaching and learning Basic Science in secondary schools in Kaduna State.
  • To investigated the perceived challenges of using ICT in Basic Science Instruction by Teachers in Jema Local Government Area.
  1. To proffer solutions to the challenges of using ICT in Basic Science Instruction by Teachers in Jema Local Government Area.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will guide the study:

  1. Is there any evidence of availability of ICT facilities in secondary schools in Jema Local Government Area?
  2. Are there any perceived benefits of using ICT for teaching and learning Basic Science in secondary schools in Kaduna State?
  3. Are there any perceived challenges of using ICT in Basic Science Instruction by Teachers in Jema Local Government Area?
  4. What are the challenges facing the adoption of ICT in secondary schools in Nigeria?

Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses were formulated to be tested at 0.05 level of significance:

H0: there is evidence of availability of ICT facilities in secondary schools in Jema Local Government Area.

H1: there is no evidence of availability of ICT facilities in secondary schools in Jema Local Government Area.

H0: there are no perceived benefits of using ICT for teaching and learning Basic Science in secondary schools in Kaduna State.

H2: there are perceived benefits of using ICT for teaching and learning Basic Science in secondary schools in Kaduna State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study aims at determining whether or not the use of computers or ICT has any significant influence on basic science instruction in schools in Jema Local Government Area. More over education is the bedrock of any society. Nigeria and Kaduna as a developing nation needs a standard institutions that has available learning resources, that teachers can improvise learning resources easily and more often also where teachers and students utilize learning resources on a regular basis. It could be a guide line for incoming students and be educative to them when handling and studying similar problems in school. This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the impact of ICT usage in Basic Science Instruction and academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.

1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study will cover a survey on Information and Communication Technology in Basic Science Instruction, in some selected secondary schools in Jema Local Government Area. The study will also ascertain its influence on student’s academic performance in Basic Science. In the cause of the study, the researcher encounters some limitations which limited the scope of the study;

Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

Inadequate Materials: Scarcity of material is also another hindrance. The researcher finds it difficult to long hands in several required material which could contribute immensely to the success of this research work.

Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

ICT: Information and communications technology (ICT) is an extensional term for information technology (IT) that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals) and computers, as well as necessary enterprise softwaremiddleware, storage, and audiovisual systems, that enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.

Basic science: Basic sciences are physics, chemistry, biology, and geology. They provide us with the basic knowledge of this universe. Engineering, medicine, agriculture, among others, are all applied sciences. As for mathematics, I don’t consider it a basic science.

ICT literacy: Literacy with Information and Communication Technology (LwICT) means thinking critically and creatively, about information and about communication, as citizens of the global community, while using ICT safely, responsibly and ethically.

Information literacy: The United States National Forum on Information Literacy defines information literacy as “the ability to know when there is a need for information, to be able to identify, locate, evaluate, and effectively use that information for the issue or problem at hand.”

Computer literacy: Computer literacy is the ability to use computers and related technology efficiently, with a range of skills covering levels from elementary use to programming and advanced problem solving.

Academic achievement: Academic achievement or (academic) performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals.




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