A TERM PAPER ON FACTORS PROMOTING INSECURITY IN NIGERIA
The primary aim of this assessment is to investigate factors promoting insecurity in Nigeria. It will also discuss the need of internal security and as a part of the fabrics of the society. Security embodies the mechanism put in place to avoid, prevent, reduce, or resolve violent conflicts, and threats that originate from other states, non-state actors, or structural sociopolitical and economic conditions. Security is vital for national cohesion, peace and sustainable development. What the society showed strive for is regulation of crisis or its amicable settlement whenever it arises. Since the extinction of security crisis seems impossible, all the society needs is a mechanism for security crisis management and control. Security crisis is inevitable because it can originate in individual and group reactions to situations of scarce recourses, to division of function within society and differentiation of power and resultant competition for scarce supplies of goods, states, valued roles and power as an end itself. It was recommended that governments at all levels should ensure that rising poverty indices are reversed and a realistic social security programme is pursued and systematically implemented to ensure that the populace meets their basic needs.
The high level of insecurity in Nigeria has constituted to the increased crime rate and terrorists attacks in different parts of the country, leaving unpalatable consequences for the nation’s economy and its growth. According to the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria “The security and welfare of the people shall be the primary purpose of government”. Unfortunately, the Nigerian government has derailed on this constitutional obligations to provide a secured and safe environment for lives, properties and the conduct of business and economic activities.
There have been reoccurring threat to national and individual security in the form of organized crimes, election related violence and violent extremism. Including oil bunkering and kidnapping initially associated with the Nigeria Delta Crisis but which later spread to the other part of the country following the amnesty deal in 2009 (Salawu, 2012). There have also been alarming incidence of armed robbering, car snatching and ritual killings in the country, the most recent is the insurgency of the deadly Fulani Herdsmen killing and Boko-Haram in the Northern Nigeria. The activities of these two violent group constitute serious security challenges in the contemporary Nigeria state.
Security is the situation that exists as a result of establishment of measures for the protection of persons, information and property against hostile persons’ influences and nations (Akin, 2008). Security can also be described as stability and continuity of livelihood, predictability of daily life, protection from crime (feeling safe), and freedom from psychological harm, safety or protection from emotional stress which results from the assurance of knowing that one is wanted, loved, accepted and protected in one’s community or neighbourhood and by people around (Ibrahim and Azubuike, 2014).
Insecurity is actually the state of being subject to all forms of dangers of both natural and artificial disasters with mostly resulting from human activities towards society or individuals. In the same way, Udoh (2015) sees insecurity as the state of being subject to danger or injury. Belend (2015), defined insecurity as “the state of fear and anxiety stemming from a concrete or alleged lack of protection”; it refers to lack or inadequate freedom from danger.
Factors Promoting Insecurity in Nigeria
There are many factors that contributes to promoting insecurity in Nigeria, ranging from corruption, unemployment, weak Judicial System, drugs, insecure boarder and many more. Below are the major factors responsible for insecurity in the Nigerian System:
Political corruption is one factor responsible for insecurity and governance failure in Nigeria. Corruption has created massive unemployment in the country, which has in turn worsened the insecurity situation in Nigeria. Mismanagement of resources has brought about massive poverty and lack which is also a factor in the insecurity challenge facing the country. Corruption hampers economic growth, disproportionately burdens the poor and undermines the effectiveness of investment and aid (Iyare, 2008).