Migration and emigration and national identity has long been the subject of debate in many recent literatures; a lot has been said about the illegal migration of immigrants into developed nations in recent years. This phenomenon has attracted the concern of the government both at the federal and state levels because of its attendant’s problems such problems associated with migration and emigration and national security in our societies today include decline in agricultural production, migration decline, urban/rural poverty, urban/rural depopulation, demographic consequences etc. it is against this background that the researcher has made conscious efforts to examine the impact of the migration, emigration and it influence on the social wellbeing of the society.
National identity is a person’s identity or sense of belonging to one state or to one nation. It is the sense of a nation as a cohesive whole, as represented by distinctive traditions, culture, language and politics. The right to citizenship is becoming increasingly contentious and questions are being raised about who has the right to participate and avail of established national identities (Koopmans et al. 2005) and whether multiple national identities can be held simultaneously. Migration is a dynamic component of population with reference to movement of people from one geographical area to another.
Migration can be classified into the following;
- i) Rural – rural migration
- ii) Rural – urban migration
iii) Urban – urban migration
- iv) Urban – rural migration.
Emigration in this context is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere. Conversely, immigration describes the movement of persons into one country from another. Reasons for the continuous migration of emigrants to cities are to search for job opportunities that will improve their standard of living. Another reason is that people like living or residing in a suitable environment. The third point why people migrate from rural to urban areas is to escape from religions, political and social situation of knowledge and skill. According to Lawai (1983), the implications of this movement are that while most of our urban centers suffers from over population of people and activities, rural areas are often under populated. There are two factors responsible for this movement from rural area to urban centers. These are the “push” and the “pull” factors.