An Analysis of Farmers Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change
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This study based on an analysis of farmers’ adaptation strategies to climate change. Climate change poses significant challenges to agricultural systems worldwide, impacting crop yields, water availability, and overall farming practices. Farmers, as key stakeholders in agriculture, must adopt adaptive measures to cope with the changing climate and safeguard their livelihoods. This study examines the adaptation strategies employed by farmers in response to climate change. It explores a range of adaptation practices, including changes in crop selection, modifications in farming techniques, water management strategies, and the adoption of climate-resilient technologies. The study investigates the factors influencing farmers’ decision-making processes regarding adaptation, such as access to resources, knowledge, market conditions, and institutional support. Using a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods, the study analyzes data collected from surveys, interviews, and field observations conducted among farmers in various regions. It examines the effectiveness of different adaptation strategies and identifies the challenges and barriers that farmers encounter in implementing and sustaining these strategies. The findings of this study contribute to the understanding of farmers’ adaptive capacity and the effectiveness of various adaptation measures. It highlights successful practices and innovative approaches that farmers employ to mitigate the impacts of climate change on their agricultural activities. Additionally, it identifies constraints faced by farmers, including financial limitations, lack of technical knowledge, and limited access to information and markets. Moreover, the study explores the role of institutions, policies, and support systems in facilitating farmers’ adaptation efforts. It investigates the influence of government initiatives, extension services, and community networks in enhancing farmers’ resilience to climate change. This analysis provides insights into the necessary institutional frameworks and support mechanisms required to promote effective adaptation at the local level. The outcomes of this study have practical implications for policymakers, agricultural practitioners, and development agencies. The analysis of farmers’ adaptation strategies offers guidance for designing and implementing climate change adaptation programs and policies that are tailored to local contexts. It underscores the importance of integrating scientific knowledge, traditional farming practices, and local wisdom in building climate resilience in agricultural systems. In conclusion, the analysis of farmers’ adaptation strategies to climate change reveals the diverse approaches employed by farmers to address the challenges posed by a changing climate. Understanding these strategies, their effectiveness, and the underlying factors is crucial for developing targeted interventions that enhance farmers’ adaptive capacity and promote sustainable agricultural practices in the face of climate change.
Analysis of Farmers Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change. 1
CHAPTER ONE. 2
1.1 Background of the Study. 2
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem.. 5
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study. 7
1.3 Scope of the Study. 7
1.4 Significance of the Study. 8
CHAPTER TWO.. 9
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW.. 9
2.1 Concept of Climate Change. 9
2.1.1 Climate Change Impacts. 10
2.1.2 The Concept of Adaptation. 11
2.1.3 Barriers to Adaptation. 12
2.1.4 Causes of Climate Change. 13
2.1.5 Evidence of Climate Change. 14
2.1.6 Adaptation Strategies. 15
2.1.7 Climate Change Adaptation. 17
2.2 Literature Review.. 17
2.2.1 Agriculture and Climate Change. 17
2.2.2 Agricultural Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change Impacts. 18
2.2.3 Crop Adaptation Strategies. 18
- Crop Diversification: 19
2.2.4 Climate Change Impacts in Agriculture. 21
2.2.5 Farmers’ Perception of Climate Change. 22
2.2.6 Agricultural Adaptive Strategies to Climate Change. 23
2.2.7 The Socio-Economic Capability of Farmer’s to Adapt to Climate Change. 24
CHAPTER THREE. 26
STUDY AREA AND METHODOLOGY. 26
3.1 Study Area. 26
3.1.1 Location of the Study Area. 26
3.1.2 Climate. 26
3.1.3 Relief and Topography. 27
3.1.4 Soils and Vegetation. 29
3.1.5 Drainage. 30
3.1.6 Population. 30
3.1.7 Economic Activities. 30
3.2 Methodology. 31
3.2.1 Reconnaissance Survey. 31
3.2.2 Types of Data. 32
3.2.3 Sources of Data. 32
188.8.131.52 Primary Sources of Data. 32
184.108.40.206 Secondary Sources of Data. 33
3.3 Sample Size andSampling Techniques. 33
3.3.1 Sample Size. 33
3.3.2 Sampling Technique. 34
3.4 Method of Data Analysis. 35
CHAPTER FOUR. 36
DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSIONS. 36
4.1 Introduction. 36
CHAPTER FIVE. 42
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. 42
5.1 Summary. 42
5.2 Conclusion. 42
5.3 Recommendations. 43
Climate change is one of the socio-economic problem facing many societies in the world, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) in the fourth assessment report, climate change is a change in the state of the climate that can be identified (e.g. using statistical tests) by the changes in the mean of temperature, precipitation and wind pattern, and which persists for an extended period usually decades or longer. Therefore, climate change is a statistically significant deviation or shift from the average weather conditions of climatic elements. The change could be limited to a specific region or may occur across the globe. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, 1992), defined climate change as a change of climate that is caused directly or indirectly by human activities, which can lead to changes in the constituent of the atmosphere, coupled with the natural climate variability observed over longer period. According to forest et al, (1999), climate change is a long term change statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods of time that range from decades of millions of years. It may be a change in the average weather condition or change in the distribution of weather events (Barchelet et al 2001).
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2.007) fourth assessment report also predicted that Africa is highly vulnerable to the various manifestations of climate change and had affirmed that reservations about climate change are inappropriate considering apparent evidences from scientific observations of increase in global average air and ocean temperatures. Ayoade, (1995); Olaniran, (2002) affirmed that the growing climatic variations and the resultant increase in temperature have plunged some localities into experiencing excessive weather conditions in the form of floods, droughts, famine and heat waves, ensuing devastating effects on human existence, agricultural productivity and food security, with many households affected by low economic status.
Climate change and agriculture are interrelated processes, which both take place on global scale (Fraser, 2008). Global warming is projected to have significant impact on conditions affecting agriculture, including temperature, carbon dioxide, glacial run-off, precipitations and the interaction of these elements (Fraser 2008). These consolations determine the carrying capacity of the biosphere to produce enough goods for the human population and domesticated animals. The overall effect of climate change on agriculture will depend on the balance of these effects. Assessment of the effect of global climate changes on agriculture might help to properly anticipate and adapt farming system to maximized agriculture product. Despite technological advances, such as improved varieties, genetically modified organisms, and irrigation systems, weathers is still a key factor in agricultural productivity, as well as soil properties and natural communities (Fischer et al, 1994).
Climate change is caused by greenhouse gasses (GHGs) such as carbon (IV) oxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). These gasses allow solar radiation from the sun to pass through the atmosphere but do not allow the reflected heat from going back into space which leads to the rise of earth’s temperature (UNFCCC, 2007). Industrialization has led to the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere, with subsequent changes in the earth’s temperature and weather systems. Mean global temperature is predicted to increase by between 1.4 -5.80c over the coming century (IPCC, 2001), which will cause changes in the distribution of rainfall, frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, and sea –level rise. Many human systems will also be affected by these changes, particularly agriculture, water resources, industry and human health.
The effect of climate change on settlement patterns, agricultural activities, livelihood and incomes. One category of the effect involves extreme events such as floods and storms, as they impact on urban infrastructure (e.g. roads and bridges) and cause direct loss of life, while the other category involves effect on agriculture or ecosystem on which rural community people depends on (Dasgupta, et al., 2014) The effects of climate change varies from one community to another depending on the location. The impact of climate on agricultural activities in Nigeria is highly uncertain and there are varying results of direct and indirect impact on agricultural production in many communities in Nigeria.
Agriculture is the main source of support for the majority of the rural households and attached urban populations in developing countries. Hence, adapting the agricultural sector to the negative effects of climate variability may be necessary to ensure food security for the country and to protect the livelihood of rural households. Adaptation to climate change is an effective measure at the farm level, which can reduce climate vulnerability by making rural households and communities better able to prepare themselves and their farming to changes and variability in climate, avoiding projected damages and supporting them in dealing with adverse events (IPCC, 2001).
In Nigeria, agriculture is one of the major economic activities contributing about 70–75% of the nations GDP. More than 70% of the population of the country depends on agricultural sector for their livelihood. Despite its high contribution to the overall economy, this sector is challenged by many factors of which climate – related disasters like drought and flood are the major ones (Deressa, 2007). One of the major causes of food insecurity is the menace of agricultural production failure due to drought, high temperature and gale force wind, resulting in reduced harvest and farmers’ income (Jalloh et al. 2013).
Since climate change is real, the ultimate goal is to create an avenue to address the challenges it poses (Hazo, 2018). However, adaptation is the most important element set by Scientist and Institutions to ensure that various livelihood systems are resilient to realities of climate change.
Adaptation is the ability of famers to adjust or cope with actual or expected climate changes. Adaptation seems to be the most efficient and friendly way for farmers to reduce the negative impacts of climate change (Fussel et al., 2006). This can be done by the farmers themselves taking adaptation actions in response to climate change or by governments implementing policies aimed at promoting appropriate and effective adaptation measures. Adaptation strategies were cried by farmers in many communities depends on the geographical location. In Nigeria particularly the northern part of the country adaptation strategies varies from one locality to another. This include: farming system, crop rotation, change in terms of farm operation (Fussel et al., 2006). Climate changes can reduce agricultural yields and raise the poverty levels for many poor farmers engaged in agricultural sectors. Climate changes have been considered as a risk on farming activities.
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