AN ANALYSIS OF PRISON & CRIME CONTROL
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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The focal point of this study is on penology and correctional sociology. The strength lies more on correction rather than punishment as a deterrent, retributive measure in the control of crime. Changes in punishment; according to Foucault (1991):
Foacault argues that these changes involve a fundamental shift in the nature of punishment. In the early 18th century, punishment focused on the body. It involves direct infliction of pain to suffer the offender, toward the late 18th – 19th century, this had changed to the punishment of the soul. The punishment consisted of a loss of rights – particularly the right to liberty. Furthermore the intention was to reform the offender rather than simply to make him suffer.
The Prison is defined as a place, grounds, buildings, declared by the minister of internal affair now interior affairs under prison Decree No 9 of 1972 as prison, (2008) Nkwocha, Daniel Ibeabuchi, page 50.
Crime is an aspect of human retrogression, it has primitive roots. In the views of Radzinowlez and King, 1977. “A crime is a conduct that is forbidden by law and for which punishment is prescribed”.
Rehabilitation, the process of returning a criminal to pursue a non-criminal life upon discharge. It ensures that inmates are not just dischargedinto the streets of society. It does this by providing therapy or vocational and educational training.
One disturbing trend is that inspite of the rehabilitation programme, the number of discharge inmates that return to the prison, is on the increase. Criminologist like Lan Taylor, Paul Walton and Jock Young (1973), their views were similar to those of the Marxist theorist, they accepted that the key to understanding crime lay in the material basis of society. A close monitoring of discharge convicts reveal that most times, the discharge inmates suffer stigmatization, which leads to recidivism.
In lending credence to this fact, William Chambliss (1972) argues that the greed, self interest and hostility generation by the society motivate individual into crimes.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The high rate of criminal activities in Imo state is causing the government and inhabitance of the state sleepless night. These crime range from, armed robbery targeted more at financial, institutions, child trafficking, and kidnapping, ritual killings. It is appalling that the group much more involved in heinous crimes comes from the active Labour force of the state, which spells out a bad omen for the state in terms of economic growth and development. This is because indigenous and foreign investments can hardly thrift in any state where the prevalence of crime is acute. It is therefore important to investigate, into such a social malice as to find ways to ameliorate it. One wonders who some active youths take to crime, when there are better avenues of making wealth such as education and skills acquisitions centres scattered all over the state.
1. Could it be traced to the fact that people are ignorant of the fact that education and skills acquisition is a veritable means of sustainable livelihood and gainful employment.
2. Could it be that the high crime rate may be attributed to the absence of industries and large market in Imo State.
3. Could it be as a result of the fact that the prisons lack the needed infrastructure for effective rehabilitation of discharged inmates considering the fact that recidivism is still on the increase.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The main objective will dwell on the relationship between crime and rehabilitation as a tool in controlling crime by the prisons service, in Imo state.
The specific objectives are:
1. To examine the various reasons that account for high crime rate in Imo state.
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