This research on An appraisal of leadership and its effectiveness in organizational performance with particular reference to NIGERCEM company Nkalagu, style operational in NIGERCEM presently and its effectiveness as a means of achieving organizational and national goals. In carrying out the research therefore, reference was made to sources including some related literature. In addition, questionnaire method was extensively employed to gather the necessary data for the study. This supported with other forms of collecting data such as books and consultation to the company’s libraries. Although getting information through some of these sources was not easy, the researcher therefore acknowledge some limitations which mighty in one way or the other affect the result of its research. After the collection of the data it was used to present, analyze, and interpret the data. At the end, some findings based on the data were made which among others is that the most popular style of leadership operational in NIGERCEM is participatory form of leadership, although it was also found out that most managers in NIGERCEM use to compensate their subordinates by giving additional responsibilities but falling to align such as recommendation for promotion. Pay increases, and there is no proper provision for training of such workers to enable them carry out effectively the added responsibility. Based on the major findings, some recommendations for improvement was derived which among other is that there is need for adequate provision of training facilities for both the workers and mangers as this would go a long way in improving their performance. As also noted, involvement of workers in taking certain decisions establishment of effective communication between managers and their subordinates would go a long way in strengthening the cordial relationship the organization and this would enable the company meet most of their set goals.
This research on an appraisal of leadership styles and its effectiveness in organizational performance with particular reference to NIGERCEM company Nkalagu, Enugu state is intending to determine and assess the leadership style operational in NIGERCEM presently and its effectiveness as a means of achieving organizational and national goals.
In carrying out this research therefore, reference is made to source including some related literature. In addition, questionnaire method is intensively employed to gather the necessary data for the study. This supports with others forms of collecting data such as books and consultation to the company’s libraries. Although getting information through some of these sources is not easy, the researcher therefore acknowledge some limitations which may in one way or the other affect the result of the research. The collection of data is present, analyze and interpret the data. It is also to find out that most managers in NIGERCEM use to compensate their subordinates by giving additional responsibilities but falling to align such action with adequate incentives such as recommendation for promotion. Pay increases, and there is no proper provision for training of such workers to enable them carry out effectively the added responsibilities.
Also to note the involvement of workers in taking certain decisions establishment of effective communication between managers and their subordinates to a go a long way in strengthening the cordial relationship in the organization and thus will enable the company meet most of their objective set of goals.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page ii
Approval page iii
Table of Contents x
- Introduction 1
- Statement of the problems 2
- Research questions 3
- Objectives of the study 4
- Significance of the study 4
- Scope and limitations 5
- Definition of terms 6
- Hypothesis 7
- References 9
Literature Review 10
- The concept if leadership 10
- Theories of leadership 16
- The trait approach to leadership 19
- The situational approach to leadership 20
- Leadership behaviour and styles 28
- Leadership effects 31
- Determination of leadership styles 33
- References 37
Research Design and Methodology 38
- Sources of data 38
- Interview method 39
- Secondary sources 39
- Population of the study 40
- Determination of sample size 40
- Procedure for gathering data 42
- Validity and Reliability of measuring instrument 42
- Data treatment technique 43
- References 44
Data Presentation and Analysis 45
- Distribution and collection of questionnaires 45
- Analysis and interpretation of questionnaires 45
- Test of Hypothesis 54
- References 58
Findings, Recommendations and Conclusion 59
- Summary of the findings 59
- Conclusions 61
- Recommendations 63
- Summary and areas of further study 65
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Leadership is generally defined as influence, the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly toward the achievement of group goals. This concept can be enlarged to imply not only willingness to work with zeal and confidence zeal reflects order, earnestness, and intensity in the execution of work, confidence reflects, and experience and technical ability. To lead is to guide, conduct, direct, and proceed. Leaders act to help a group achieve objectives with the maximum applications of its capabilities. They place themselves before to accomplish organizational goals.
The relationship to leadership to the management crisis is intriguing as a case of the situational approach to leadership. There is much facts to consider. In times of prosperity well-developed hygiene factors supervision, interpersonal relations, working conditions, wages, policies and job security-may, to a variable degree, be used by the leader as reinforcing agents to provide a “set” that will produce good results. But if adverse conditions develop, such as a long, drawn –out depression or defect by an enemy in way be wage cuts and negative changes in working conditions. What, then is the preferred leadership style.
Another hygiene factor, not include in the usual enumeration is the relationship potential. It would appear that in our society success is assumed and therefore is not a positive factor as a leadership role. On the other hand, can a manager with a succession of failures effectively lead?
The emergence of spontaneous leaders in times of crises used to be a favourite theme for developing an understanding of leadership itself. They group at play selects its leaders and follows orders; at all scene of an accident the doctor emerges as the leader. Are we saying that the best leadership emerges during crises? Based on these problems, it is the intention of the researcher to verify the existence of this problem in Nigeria using Cement Company, Nkalagu as a case study.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS:
A look at the happening in various government owned institutions gives a picture of workers attitude that varies between disinterestedness to deliberate impediment as a result of which the smallest and simple piece of business takes more time and trouble that should and frequently, requires the attention of a senior instead of junior employee before it can be done at all. This adds to the actual cost of operating a business, which involves uneconomic and senseless of manpower. Through the yeas it has shown that government owned institutions have almost if not completely failed in they’re performance. This failure may partly be attributed to ineffective leadership it is based on this that we set out to investigate and evaluate the effectiveness of leadership adopted by these institutions.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS:
This study does not desire to apply casual relationships among the
variable questions were posed.
- The leaders in government owned companies adopt what leadership styles.
- To what extent does leadership styles and practices affect workers feelings of contemptment?
- Will changing the leadership styles influence effective performance?
- What is the correlation between reward and effect in the organization?
Answering these questions is one of the core aims of the research.
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
- To ascertain the types of leadership style used in managing the company.
- To ascertain the effectiveness of the leadership style is the company
- To recommend the most effective leadership for managing company.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research work will be of an immense help to Nkalagu Cement Company in their process of choosing the best leadership styles to follow.
Furthermore, it will educate the company on the styles of subordinate and superior relationship to be maintained in the organization for the achievement of the organization objectives.
It will also help the general public on their decision on leadership style to be followed by similar organizations.
This study justified in the sense that it is done as a contribution to the current search for the solution of our managerial problem especially on the areas of leadership.
Finally if will help other researcher who will research into leadership styles in the future.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS
The empirical study is limited to Nkalagu Cement Company. It will exclude those workers that cannot read and write since they may bot be able to respond to the instruments of data collection. However, the researcher did not find it very easy in statistical records for most of the work in some division where the current data are available, they are not released in full for few of information leakage especially in Nkalagu cement company. This is also some element of basin the minds of most of the respondent. Hence explanations on some questions are not explicitly done. Also these factors no doubt directly or indirectly would affect the result of this study.
However, satisfactory efforts were made to ensure that this empirical study was conducted under conditions that ensure scientifically valid conclusions.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS:
Leadership: Defined as influences the act or process of influencing
people so that they will strive willingly toward the
achievement of group.
Management: The process of controlling, directing, and planning
and organizing in order to achieve an objectives
Correlation research: Attempts to determine whether, and to what degree a relationship exist between two or more quantifiable variables.
Casual comparative: A study to company the achievements of a group of students classified as high anxious and a group classified as low –anxious.
Organizational: putting something into working order to arrange parts into an efficient system.
Democratic: government of the people by the people and for the
people. The group never told what to do.
Autocratic: Leader would take decision and ask the group to implement them.
1.8 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
This study does not desire to apply casual relationships among the variable questions were posed.
- Ho- leadership styles are adopted by the leaders in government owned companies.
- Ho – is thee leadership styles chooses effectively used in the management of the company?
H1- is the leadership style chosen effectively dose not used inn the management of the company?
- H0- How free are you to discuss important things about your job with your leader?
Hi-How free is you not to discuss important things about your job with your leader?
- H0-Do you share the view that it is essential for the subordinate to trust and the like the leader?
Hi-do you share the view that it is not essential the subordinate to trust and like the leader?
- Ho- to what extent dose leadership styles and practice affect workers feeling of comtemptment?
Hi-leadership styles and practices do not affect workers feeling of contemptment.
- Ejiofor P.N.O. Management in Nigerian Theories and issues: Nigerian African Educational Publishers, 1973 PP 132.
- Burns J.M.G The leadership Colophon Books New York: 1979. Pp2
- Kvontzz O Daniel Weihirch Management seventh Edition. PP 661
- Ibid page 684 and d685.
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