AN ASSESSMENT OF EMPLOYEES’ CAREER DEVELOPMENT ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA
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1.1 Background to the Study
Career development helps in the integration of human resource needs and opportunities for individual growth in an organization. An effective career development strategy helps organizations to harvest from the internal pool of talent and enables the organization to match the skills and competencies of the employees to organizational goals. As every employee strives to make career choices based on their interests and passion, it is necessary that organization encourage them by supporting their passion through regular training and mentorship. This personal drive and passion which was a personal affair from onset, translates to be the firm’s concern as it will in-turn boost the employees’ competences toward achieving organizational goals. Therefore, the development of an employee’s career serves as a win – win situation as it benefits both the employee and the organization. As employees aspire to develop their career, so are organization’s eagerness to achieve success in their various fields. The career development of the employee is largely dependent on his relative usefulness and contributions to the organization’s effectiveness and growth. According to (Frost, 2019), companies that do not offer quality training to employees should expect poor and worsening performance, lack of employee development, diminished industry standing and legal consequences which will lead to poor performance of the organisation.
Career development is the total constellation of psychological, sociological, educational, physical, economic, and chance factors that combine to shape the career of an employee over the life span. Career development is about helping employees to become change resilient, more secure in them and their future as the organisation adjusts to changing market situations. Scales (2010), opined that career development which is an interventionist program is not just about accelerating career vertically upwards through a structured system where organization members are in separate levels of authority, obligations, monetary benefits and more amount of time spent on the job. It also involves helping employees to become more proactive to change and feel more secure as the organization changes to fit new conditions in a dynamic environment. Career development benefits not only the individual employee, but also the organization. Greenhaus, Callanan and Godshalk (2010) define career development as an ongoing process by which individual’s progress through a series of stages, each of which is characterised by a relatively unique set of issues, themes, and tasks. However, career development helps to retain and motivate workers through the career development process; employees are assisted in setting realistic goals and to develop the required skills and abilities for target positions (Hall, 2002).
Organizational performance as a phenomenon is a subject of concern to researchers, scholars, decision makers and human resources experts. Organisational performance has received greater attention from many researchers but in different perspectives and this has been problematic since there are no universal or unified criteria for measuring the concept of organisational performance (Thompson, 2007). Organizational performance can be seen as a function of employee performance, since organizational productivity depend on constantly improving the performance of employees and maintaining the human potential that serves as the backbone of the organization (Oluoch, 2013). Al Damoe (2012), assumes that organizational performance is always indicated by financial scales non-monetary, sales, market share and profit methods such as, commitment and efficiency of employee, organizations’ productivity, employees’ satisfaction, quality of service, and innovativeness. Organizational performance comprises the actual output or results of an organization as measured against its intended outputs. According to Richard et al., (2009) organizational performance encompasses three specific areas of firm outcomes: financial performance, product market performance and shareholder return but Liptons (2003) proposes that firm performance is the ability of the firm to prevail. However, Wang, Chich-Jen, and Mei-Ling (2010); citing Choi and Mueller (1992) stress that financial and non-financial indices are fit for measuring performance.
Career is seen as the pattern of work related experience that spans the course of a person’s life (Greenhaun, 2010). Career revolves around three basic themes that include advancement in career position; source of stability within single occupational field and evolving sequence of a person’s work experience. Career development instill the fusion and interaction between the organization for which an employee works and the development of the organization through the employee’s career. Therefore, career development is of great importance to both the individual employee and the organization (Armstrong, 2001). Employees usually develop their career through a continuous acquisition of managerial or professional skills and experience which may bring about rewards and promotion. Graham and Bennet (2009) agree with the above assertion and contend that career development involves higher status and responsibilities which can take place in one organization or through movement between organizations or a combination of both. In today’s competitive market, successful organizations regardless of size need employees who have the necessary knowledge and skills to make an effective contribution as drivers towards achieving a competitive edge in the organization. Career development practices are key strategic considerations for all organizations regardless of size, sector, market or profile.
Most scholars have attempted to identify components of career development as; values and beliefs Adeniji and Osibanjo, (2012), while others opined that career progress differs among gender affiliation Kirk,et al. (2000). A contrary opinion from the studies of O’Neil; Hopkins and Bilimoria, (2008), suggest that gender career development may not necessarily differ from each other. Further, Olorunsula, (2000) and Thamhain, (1992) argued that training, coaching/counseling, job rotation (Zin, Shamsudin, and Subramaniam, (2013; Raduan, 2002; and Lai Wan 2001), sabbaticals and short tasks are often used as career development interventions. Also, various studies have been conducted amongst which include; career development and mentoring (Tareef, 2012); job rotation and career development (Zin, Shamsudin, and Subramaniam, 2013); career development in best-practice organizations (Lam, Dyke and Duxbury); career development for host country nationals (Vo, 2009); glass ceiling on women career development (Bombuwela De Alwis, (2013). However, limited studies have been carried out regarding effects of career development on organizational performance in the transition economy such as Nigeria. While the limited studies on career development have failed to look fundamentally at how individuals manage their careers vi-a-vis the organizations objectives, and how organizations structure employees’ career progress. Therefore, this study intends to ascertain the relationship between employees’ career development and organizational performance in Nigeria.
Adeniji, A. A. & Osibanjo, A. O. (2012). Human Resource Management: Theory & Practice. Pumark Nigeria Limited, Lagos (437 pages)
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Armstrong, L., & West, J. (2001). Banking, Technology Workers and Their Career Development. Australian Journal of Career Development, 10(1), 6–10.
Bombuwela P. M., & De Alwis A. C. (2013). Effects of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development in Private Sector Organizations-Case of Sri Lanka. Journal of Competitiveness. 5(2): 3 – 19. DOI: 10.7441/joc.2013.02.01.
Frost, S. 2019. The Importance of Training & Development in the Workplace. SmallBusinessChron.com. Viewed 12 August, 2020 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/ importance-training-development-workplace-10321.html.
Greenhaus, J.G., Callanan, G.A., & Godshalk, V.M. (2010). Career management. (3rd ed). New York: The Dryden Press.
Graham H.T and Bennett R. (2005). Human Resources Management. 8th Edition. The M and E Handbook Series, Longman Group UK Ltd, London.
Hall, D. T. (2002). Career in and out of organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
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O’Neil, D. A.; Hopkins, M. M.; & Bilimoria, D. (2008). Women’s Careers at the Start of the 21st Century: Patterns and Paradoxes. Journal of Business Ethics, 80 (727-743). DOI 10.1007/s10551-007-9465-6.
Olorunsula, R. (2000). Job Rotation in academic libraries: the situation in Nigerian universitylibrary. Library Management, 21(2), 94-98.
Oluoch, D. and Lucas B. (2013). Staff Training and Development: A Vital Tool for Organisational Effectiveness. European Journal of Scientific Research. ISSN 1450-216X Vol.24 No.3 (2008), pp.326-331.
RaduanCheRos (2002). Japanese Style-Management Abroad: the case of Malaysian subsidiaries. Kuala Lumpur: Prentice Hall.
Scales, J. (2010). Developing talent: How profession opportunities pressure enterprise performance. Proper management – A manpower institution company. Proper-view point 2 (2), 145-159.
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