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AN INVESTIGATION ON THE ASSERTION DEPRESSION: A SILENT KILLER IN THE 21ST CENTURY CAUSES, EFFECTS AND REMEDY (A CASE STUDY OF BWARI AREA COUNCIL ABUJA-FCT NIGERIA)

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Depression is Different for Men ...

                                              CHAPTER ONE

                                            INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

The prevalence of depression has sharply grown in recent years particularly among adults. For instance, it’s estimated that over 330 million people globally experience severe depression. According to estimates, the only condition that will surpass depression in 20 years is cardiovascular disease (Awake, 2004). A significant contributor to the global disease burden, depression is thought to impact 350–400 million people globally. As a result, depression is the leading cause of years spent disabled worldwide (Marcus et al., 2012). Years lived with disability (YLDs) are primarily caused by depressive illnesses. Major Depressive Disorder accounted for 8.2% (5.9%–10.8%) of YLDs worldwide in 2010, while dysthymia accounted for 1.4% (0.9%–2.0%) of YLDs (Murray et al. 2013, WHO, 2001).Moreover, it was estimated in 2010 that depression cost the US economy at least US$ 800 billion in lost economic activity; by 2030, this amount is predicted to more than double (WHO, 2008). One in twenty persons reported having depression, according to a 2012 World Health Organization (WHO) study conducted in 17 countries (Marcus et al. 2012). An estimated 800,000 to 1 million people commit suicide each year as a result of depression at its worst (Marcus et al. 2012).

It’s a prevalent mental health illness that alters your thoughts, sleep patterns, eating habits, and behavior in addition to causing a chronic sense of melancholy. According to Murray et al. (2013), 16 million suicide Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) could be attributed to major depressive disorder. According to Katzon et al. (2007), depression is more common in people with long-term physical conditions such as HIV/AIDS, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, and tuberculosis (TB) than it is in healthy individuals. A prolonged sense of melancholy and a loss of interest in things and activities you used to enjoy are symptoms of the mood disorder depression. It may also make it difficult to eat, sleep, remember things, or think clearly. Being the third most common cause of illness globally and the top cause in middle- and high-income nations, depression is a severe public health concern (American Psychiatric Association, 2023). Research from Western nations (the US and Europe) indicates that the lifetime prevalence of depression is between 13 and 16 percent. In most situations, depression is a recurring disorder (Chand, 2022).

Major depressive disorder is a mental illness included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV-TR) category of mood disorders (5). The definition lists the following: low or agitated mood, diminished interest or pleasure, altered weight or appetite, altered sleep patterns, altered activity, exhaustion or lack of energy, worthlessness or guilt, inability to focus, and suicidality. For a diagnosis of major depressive illness, at least five of the nine symptoms must be present almost daily. There are numerous varieties. It’s can be treated, usually with medication, talk therapy, or both. Additionally, the patient’s ability to perform social, occupational, or educational tasks must be compromised. There are benchmarks used to categorize depression as mild, moderate, or severe. Although the chapter on depressive disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual V (DSM-V) is distinct from the chapters on bipolar and related disorders, the DSM-V defines major depression in a manner that is substantially similar to that of the previous edition (National Institute of Mental Health, 2023).

Depression carries a heavy emotional cost for those who experience it as well as for family members. It also significantly affects how well the depressed person functions. Depression has a financial cost to society that is both direct and indirect. Direct costs include things like treatment expenses and lost output as a result of illness and death. Combining direct and indirect expenditures, a Swedish study found that between 1997 and 2005, the amount increased from 1.7 to 3.5 billion euros (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Over time, the indirect expenses—sick leave and early retirement—rose while the direct costs remained mostly constant. According to the epidemiology of depression, women experience the disorder at a younger age and are more likely than males to be affected (Schuch, Roest, Nolen, Penninx, de Jonge, 2014, Lepine, Gastpar, Mendlewicz, Tylee 1997).

According to Mirowitz (1992), the prevalence of depression is higher in younger age groups before declining and peaking in individuals 80 years of age or older. It then rises again in middle age, peaking at roughly 45 years of age. Depression is more common in obese people, while depression itself is more common in sad people (De Wit, Bouvy, and Luppino, 2010). Childhood maltreatment, including physical, sexual, and neglect abuse, raises the chance of depression in later life (Horwitz, Widom, McLaughlin, White, 2001). Additionally, it has been demonstrated that stressful life experiences raise the likelihood of depression (Karkowski, Prescott, Kendler, 1999). Moreover, some individuals are genetically predisposed to depression According to (Sullivan, Neale, and Kendler, 2000), this may compound with stressful life events to raise the chance of developing depression (Kessler, Walters, and Kendler, 1995). Other risk factors include low socioeconomic status, being single, divorced, or widowed, and living in an urban environment (Lejtzen, Sundquist, Sundquist, 2014).

Depression symptoms vary slightly depending on the type, ranging from moderate to severe. In general, symptoms include feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and worry. Children and adolescents suffering from depression may be irritable rather than sad, unable to enjoy formerly enjoyable activities, and easily angered or upset. However, several plant therapies may be used to cure depression. One of these is the turmeric antidepressant, also known as curcumin, and other herbs that can effectively relieve depression, anxiety, and tension.

1.2 Problem Statement

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