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The purpose of this research work is to analysis socio-economic factors affecting the academic performance of Business Education students in Federal College of Education, Abeokuta, Ogun State. This study adopted a descriptive survey design to analysis of socio-economic factors affecting the academic performance of Business Education students. Sample and sampling techniques was selected randomly from each level (100, 200 and 300level) in Business Education department. A population of fifty students each was selected at random from each level, making up the population of eight hundred and fifty two used as sample from the population. The instrument for data collection choosing by the research was questionnaires. The research revealed that learning facilities influence business education students’ academic performance to a high extent and peer group influence affects students’ academic performance in business studies. The study therefore recommends that, parents should re-examine its financial support to student since such support is viewed as the main contributor towards the student academic performance and parents should always try to encourage their ward/ wards in all that they do and try to give moral support so that the ward would be emotionally stable and have confidence in all that they do, whether at school or at home.
1.1 Background of the Study
School, colleges and universities have no worth without students. Students are the most essential asset for any educational institute. The social and economic development of the country is directly linked with student academic performance. The students’ performance (academic achievement) plays an important role in producing the best quality graduates who will become great leaders and human resources for the country thus responsible for the country’s economic and social development (Ali, Norhidayah, Jusoff, Kamaruzaman, Ali, Syukriah,Mokhtar, Najahand Salamt, AzniSyafena Andin, 2009). Student academic performance measurement has received considerable attention in previous researches, it is a challenging aspect of academic literature, and science students performance are affected due to social, psychological, economic, environmental and personal factors. These factors strongly influence the students’ performance, but these factors vary from person to person and from country to country.
Socioeconomic status is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person’s work experience and of an individual’s or family’s economic and social position relative to others, based on income and education, and occupation (Marmot, Michael, 2004) indicates When analyzing a family’s social economic status, the household income, earners’ education and occupation are examined, as well as combined income, versus with an individual, when their own attributes are assessed.
Some other study indicates home background; particularly the provision of learning experience and cognitive and effective stimulation significantly influences academic performance of students’. (Sangedighi 2007). The educational background to a large extent dictates the type of parental occupation. The type of parental occupation affects the level of attention accorded the educational progress monitoring process of the parents. For example, bank workers are to work early and close late, such people hardly find it convenient to visit their ward at school and check their school works at home. This is opposed to civil servants who have more time to spend with their ward and also occupations of the parents determine the structure of their income or earning. Farley (2003) and Eitzen& smith, (2003) pointed out that a family’s socio-economic status is based on the parent income, occupation and education. In general, parents of high economic status have high incomes, highly respected occupation and are well educated. Parents of low socio-economic status have low incomes, unskilled or semi-skilled jobs are poorly educated. Parents of middle socio-economic class have medium business of professional occupations and a good education.
Ramey & Ramey, (2004), observe that, in third world countries, families with lower socioeconomic status often lack the financial, social and educational support that characterizes high socio-economic status families. Lower socio-economic status parents have inadequate or limited access to community resources that promote and support ward’s development and school performance. According to Eamon (2005) & Duke (2000), at federal college of education level, students hailing from low socio-economic status are trained to respect authority and obey orders that employers like in manual labourers. Conformity and obedience are encouraged rather than individual critical thinking and evaluative abilities amongst the students at this level. Most researchers and experts think that the low socio-economic status negatively affects the academic performance of students. As a result of low socio – economic status their needs and demands remain unfulfilled and that is why they do not show better academic performance. Studies around Africa by different scholars such as, (Eamon, 2005), (Duke, 2000) & (Jeynes’ 2002), have indicated that there is a significant difference between low and high socio economic status. Low socio-economic status are often portrayed as disadvantaged in terms of having lower income and lower levels of education and therefore being associated with disadvantaged school performance and outcome.
Business education involves teaching students the fundamentals, theories, and processes of business, it may depend on multiple factors, including socio-economic-behavioral background of students, their family structure and family environment, personal attitude of a student towards his/her studies, level of stress in family or in educational institution, peer pressure, family support financial as well as in studies, teachers level of teaching, environment of the institute where he/she has been studying, previous schooling, regularity in attending classes, daily time spent on studies, overall disciplinary environment/pressure/restrictions in family or in educational institution, living with family (day scholar) or living in a hostel, educational background of the student (i.e., what sort of institution he or she has been to before joining university for higher education), what kind of courses he or she has already studied before undertaking business studies, student’s time consumed in extracurricular activities, lack of preparation for a particular exam, student’s working habits and commitment for studies, self motivation and level of healthy competition in class room among the students, gender of the student, father’s profession and income level, parents’ education, parental pressure, locality where they live, whether they belong to a main city or a small town, etc. Therefore, the study is to analyse of socio-economic factors affecting the academic performance of Business Education students in Federal College of Education, Abeokuta.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Researchers have carried out different research studies on the socio-economic factors that affect students and it’s effect on their academic performance since the high rates of failure at tertiary institutions has resulted in unacceptable levels of attrition, reduced graduates throughout and increased cost of training a nation’s labour force thereby providing the bases for the falling standard of learning in the country.
Therefore, this research sought to analyse the socio-economic factors affecting the academic performance of students in Business Education Department in Federal College of Education Osiele, Abeokuta.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to analyse the socio-economic factors affecting students’ performance in business studies college of education, Ogun state, Nigeria. Specifically, the study seeks to:
- Determine the extents to which parents‟ level of education influence business studies students‟ academic performance in Abeokuta, Ogun state.
- Determine the extents to which occupations of parents influence their business studies students‟ performance in Abeokuta, Ogun state.
- Determine the extents to which parents‟ family size influence their business studies students‟ academic performance in Abeokuta, Ogun state.
1.4 Research Questions
- To what extents does parents‟ level of education influence their business studies students‟ academic performance in Abeokuta, Ogun state?
- To what extent do the occupations of parents influence business studies students‟ performance in Abeokuta, Ogun state?
- To what extent do parents‟ family sizes influence business studies students’
academic performance in Abeokuta, Ogun state?
1.5 Scope of the Study
The study focused on the socio-economic factors affecting the academic performance of students in Federal College of Education but because of time, money and other factors, it will be limited to Business Education department in Federal College of Education, Abeokuta.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study may be helpful for both colleges’ policy makers and parents of the students. It helps the college administration to design and implement the policies to improve the student’s academic performance and the quality of education by changing the attitude of students towards learning, facilitating students and improving the teaching procedures. Parents can use the outcomes of the study to solve the students’ problems especially financial problems and to look after them. It may also create awareness among students about their rights and responsibilities to achieve quality education.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Academic: To belong to an academy or other higher institution of learning.
Analysis: It is defined as a decomposition into components in order to study (a complex thing, concept, theory). It is also a proof by dedication from known truth.
Factor: One of the several things that cause or influence something.
Performance: It is the act of performing; carrying into execution or action; accomplishment. It is also that which is performed or accomplished; a thing done or carried through an achievement a deed: an act; a feat, especially, an action of an elaborate or public character.
Socio-Economy: This is the effective management of the resources of a society.
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