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Account Number: 0709546102

Access Bank: Savings Account

Name: Emmanuel Idorenyin Samuel.  



The study examined the Management of Resources in FCT Government Secondary Schools Abuja, Nigeria. The objectives of the study are to evaluate the management of human, facility, funds, curriculum and time resources. Five research questions were raised while five hypotheses were tested in the study which adopted the descriptive survey as the design. The population of this study comprised the 56 Government Secondary Schools located in the six Area Council in Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja with 168 school heads and 3422 teachers from all the schools, from which a sample of 51 school heads and 383 teachers was drawn using purposive sampling technique. Respondents of the study responded to the instrument titled, ‗Assessment of Resource Management in Secondary Schools‘ (ARMSS) with the reliability index of 0.78. The instrument was designed by the researcher in the modified Likert 5-point scale. Mean score and standard deviation were used in answering the research questions while the t-test was used in testing the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Findings revealed that human resources and school funds were not well managed in the FCT secondary schools while the facilities, curriculum and time resources were well managed by the school heads. Based on the findings, the researcher recommended that school heads should motivate their staff (teachers) so as to bring out the best in them, Also to create a good organisational climate such that there will be good culture and rapport among members of staff and school heads. Proper accountability procedures should be developed for better utilisation of school funds.            

Declaration ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgements V
Abstract Vi
Table of Contents Vii
Operational Definition of Terms IX
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 6
1.3 Objectives of the Study 9
1.4 Research Questions 9
1.5 Research Hypotheses 10
1.6 Basic Assumptions 10
1.7 Significance of the Study 11
1.8 Scope of the Study 12
2.1 Introduction 13
2.2 Conceptual Frame Work 14
2.3 The Management of Human Resources in an Organisation 19
2.4 The Management of Material Resources in an Organisation 25
2.5 The Management of Time Resources in an Organisation 34
2.6 The Management of Financial Resources in an Organisation 42


2.7 The Management of School Curriculum 49
2.8 Empirical Studies 55
2.9 Summary 56
3.1 Introduction 58
3.2 Research Design 58
3.3 Population of the Study 59
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques 59
3.5 Instrumentation 60
3.6 Validity of the Instrument 61
3.7 Pilot Study 61
3.8 Reliability of the Study 61
3.9 Procedures for Data Collection 62
3.10 Method of Data Analysis 62
4.1. Introduction 61
4.2. Results and Analysis of the Personal Data 61
4.3. Presentation and Analysis of Data 62
4.4. Hypotheses Testing 81
4.5. Summary of Major Findings 87
4.6. Discussions of the Findings 88
5.1. Summary 92
5.2. Conclusions 93


5.3. Recommendations 95
5.4. Suggestions for further studies 95

      CHAPTER ONE   INTRODUCTION   1.1.        Background to the Study   The need for improved service delivery in the secondary school system has necessitated the need to improve on the educational resources which is expected to positively impact on the FCT secondary schools; this can only be achieved by effective management of the school resources. Adedeji, Olaniyan and Owoeye (2001) opined that the quality of management of school human and material resources have a very strong relationship to the students‘ academic performances; therefore human resources in education should be seen as assets in an educational institution.   Management exists in an organisation to make resources productive in order that the organisation can achieve its goal. Onwuchukwa 1998 in Ezeani 2012 said, management is the organisation and mobilization of all human and material resources in a particular system for the achievement of identified objectives. It determines the organization‘s outcome either positive or negative, therefore in secondary schools the school heads are responsible for the management of the schools despite the fact that government are responsible for the management of secondary schools in terms of provision of funds, school regulations, discipline, innovation, provision of houses for staff, school plant management, promotion of school health etc.   Educational management involves the application of management principles in designing, developing, and effecting resources towards the achievements of educational goals. Okwori and Edem (2012) were of the opinion that school administrator is one saddled with the responsibility of administering and managing school by making things happen and by organising human, financial, and material resources in order to achieve the objectives of the institution within the targeted period. The post of a school administrator is the most   12     challenging assignment that faces the school managers, due to this highly complex and demanding task, the administrator is required to possess professional skills and competent management techniques in order to achieve the educational goals of the school. Adetoro (2009) says resources management in an organisation is the effective and efficient deployment of an organisation‘s resources when needed, effectiveness here is judged by the extent to which the secondary school administrator acquire necessary instructional materials including teachers, and how they provide a congenial organizational climate and generally meeting the expectations of the society within which they are established.   The successful implementation of school curriculum and other programmes depend largely on the management ability to carry out the task or assignment effectively. (Edem, 2012) Oluremi (2014) says education involves the teachers and the learners as well as the use of certain resources; management of these resources is germane to the sustainable development of educational system. The success of any educational system therefore depends on the availability of resources and how the resources are effectively and efficiently managed. Good educational managers must carefully and effectively handle educational resources put under their custody (Babalola, 2006)   Good learning facilities are precondition for student learning, a growing body of research has linked students behaviour and performance to the physical building condition. The conditions of school facilities are significant factors that influence students learning. Material resources management is the process of acquisition, use and maintenance of school materials towards achieving the set goals and objectives. Material resources in these context referto physical resources which include every moveable and immoveable properties, physical structures, instructional materials, and educational assets belonging to an educational institution to enhance teaching and learning process.         13     However to achieve educational objectives, school administrators are expected to apply appropriate management skills which will enable them achieve the set educational goals because they are responsible for the provision of instructional activities by coordinating curricular activities such as lesson notes, scheme of work and teaching aids towards achieving academic performance. Therefore a good school administrator is in the position to supervise, monitor, evaluate, and disseminate current information on educational issues and modern teaching techniques to teachers in order to stimulate them and to ensure school activities are carried out in such a way that things work effectively and efficiently.   Secondary school is the link between the primary and tertiary education in Nigeria, they are either owned by government or non-government. It is at this level of education that students are prepared for the tertiary institution. Within the framework of the New National Policy on Education (2004), secondary education shall last for six years, broken into two distinct parts that are perfectly correlated with the ground works of the first three years – Junior Secondary School (J.S.S.) – dovetailing into the next three years of Senior Secondary School (S.S.S.), but presently its now nine (9) years in basic education class (I.e. six years of primary school including the first three years of secondary school which is the junior secondary school) and three years in the secondary school. According to the National Policy on Education the broad aims of secondary education in Nigeria are:  

  • Preparation of students for useful living within the society, and


  • Preparation of students for higher education. In specific terms, the secondary school system is geared towards realizing the following objectives:

  (a) Provide all primary school leavers with the opportunity for education of a higher level, irrespective of sex, social status, religious or ethnic background.   (b) Offer diversified curriculum to cater for the differences in talents, Opportunities and future roles;   1.2.        Statement of the Problem   Thereare available resources in secondary schools of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja and its evidence on its availability and utilization in the classrooms. (Aderomu, Akinsola, and Ogunkola; 2002) In a research study on the effective management of resources in the secondary schools, despite the availability of resources, some school heads are lacking leadership competencies, resulting in low quality of instruction, indiscipline among staff and   16     students (Aina, 2011) It appears that competencies here refer to the ability to supervise, appraise, develop, train and retrain, reward, and promote staff accordingly and most importantly meet up with their needs (welfare)all these lies at the efficiency of the organisation.   However every organisation depends mainly on human resources for the execution of their programme or activities in order to achieve the set goals and objectives. The importance of human resources cannot be over emphasized because the quality of staff in any organisation/ educational system determines the quality of the system or organisation itself. Professional staffs however, are relevant to the successful implementation and interpretation of the educational policies and programmes. Ofojebe (2010) stated that teachers are the major human resources for effective implementation and realization of the educational policies and objectives at the practical level of classroom. Therefore teachers are the aid to learning and the interpreters of the curriculum, According to Omojunwa (2007) teachers are the ultimate interpreters and implementers of educational policy as represented in the school curriculum which is designed to actualise educational goals. Maintaining and improving educational standard is only possible through teachers therefore poor management of teachers reduces the extent to which the curriculum can be delivered effectively. It is in this light that Oduma (2012) noted that a manager who underrates the critical roles and underplays the importance of people in goals achievement can neither be effective nor efficient.   There have been steady decline in teachers‘ instructional task performance and students‘ academic performance which depicts non-realization of educational goals and objectives in secondary schools (Adeniji 2002). This has been largely attributed to gaps in teachers‘ competence, curriculum instruction, learning facilities and resources, funding and institutional management. Mpokosa said the challenges to effective management is a s a result of a weak management system and decision making, weak management for the   17     recruitment and deployment of teachers and administrators. It is important know that the effectiveness of school heads in curriculum implementation and also the maintenance of school facilities is based on the management of school resources, It is not enough to provide school facilities but how these facilities are been maintained and replaced by the school heads and teachers. Good facilities appear to be an important precondition for student learning, provided that other conditions are present that support a strong academic program in the school. Different research study has linked student achievement and behaviour to the physical building conditions and overcrowding. The conditions of school facilities is considered a significant factor that influence learning, Craig (2009) said that there is a positive relationship between the quality of school facility and the quality of educational activities that takes place within the school. Therefore, maintenance of school facilities keeps them in its original sate of wholeness, regular maintenance of facilities ensures that facilities remain operational even under adverse weather condition and prevents future cost of repairs and major renovations are reduced. 1.3. Objectives of the Study   The was set to:  

  • evaluate the management of human resources in secondary schools in Abuja;


  • assess the management of facilities in secondary schools in Abuja;


  • examine the management of time as resource in secondary schools in Abuja;


  • find out the management of financial resources in secondary schools in Abuja; and


  • assess the management of Curriculum as instructional resources in secondary schools in Abuja.

    1.4         Research Questions   Based on the statement of the problem and objectives of the study, the study was guided by the following research questions;   19  

  • How are the human resources in secondary school of the FCT managed?


  • How are facilities in FCT secondary schools maintained?


  • How is time resource managed in secondary schools of the FCT?


  • How are school funds managed in FCT secondary schools?


  • How are instructional resources managed in FCT secondary schools?

  1.5 Research Hypotheses   The following research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study  

  • There is no significant difference in the opinions of school heads and teachers in the utilisation of teachers in FCT secondary schools;


  • There is no significant difference in the opinions of school heads and teachers in the maintenance of school facilities in FCT secondary schools;


  • There is no significant difference in the opinions of school heads and teachers in the utilisation of time in FCT secondary schools;


  • There is no significant difference in the opinion of school heads and teachers in the utilisation of school funds in FCT secondary schools; and


  • There is no significant difference in the opinions of school heads and teachers in the utilisation of instructional resources in FCT secondary schools.

  1.6 Basic Assumptions   The study is on the assumptions that:  

  • human resources in secondary schools in FCT Abuja are well managed.


  • school facilities are well maintained in all the FCT secondary schools.


  • time resource is effectively managed in order to achieve the set educational objectives in the FCT secondary school.


  • school funds are well utilized to achieve the set educational objectives in the FCT Abuja.


  • all the available instructional resources are well utilized by the various schools in the FCT Abuja.

  1.7 Significance of the Study   The research will be of importance to all the educational stakeholders like the Government, Secondary Education Board, National Education Research and Development Council, School heads, teachers and the society at large in the following ways;   The National Education Research and Development Council (NERDC) in May, 1986 made a nine point recommendation to enhance educational standard, among the recommendation was adequate teaching aids and funds to provide other infrastructural facilities. It is hoped that the research study will help to raise the standard of education in schools having made useful suggestions on how to improve the management of school resources.   This study will hopefully reveal to the government the importance of planning, organising, monitoring, supervising, maintaining and evaluating the available school resources. It will also help them to develop skills to encourage their staffs so as to put in their best and also to give room for teachers‘ growth and development by organising programmes, seminars that will help to broaden their knowledge.   To the Secondary Education Board, it is hope that the research study will help them to identify the need for effective management on all the secondary schools in the FCT thereby encouraging school heads to make use of their management skills to direct and utilise the resources given to them and also monitoring of secondary schools in terms of finance, curriculum, maintenance of facilities and development of human resources at specific periods of time, this will help them to know the need for consistency in their work.   To the Administrator it will help them to identify the areas where they are lacking and how to improve on it towards achieving the set educational goals thereby increasing the         21     standard of education. It also helps them to understand the need for school management and to develop maintenance culture on all the available school resources.   To the school management, it will help to improve on their management strategies so as to achieve the goals and objectives by taking appropriate actions with modification when goals are not achieved or when improvement is desired. It will also help the researcher herself to know how effective and efficient educational resources are managed in the various secondary schools.   To the society at large, which include the teachers, learners and parents the research study will help their mentality on how to manage and maintain school resources rather than the ‗I don‘t care attitude‘ in which they are use too. Finally, it will also serve as a base line data and source of concern for other future researchers.   1.8         Scope of the Study   This research focuses on assessment of resource management in secondary schools in FCT Abuja. In doing this, the study focused attention on the importance of management on the available school resources (Human, material, finance, time and curriculum).The research was narrowed to FCT Government secondary schools to enable the researcher minimize the cost of covering a large number of schools and to enable the researcher conduct a meaningful study within the short possible time as permitted for the programme.         GET THIS MATERIAL HERE FOR 3,000

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