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Government announces plans for universal school inspections - GOV.UK



The primary focus of this research was to examine the attitude of secondary school principals towards school inspection in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State. To be able to achieve the above purpose, the following test was carried out. The study employed simple random sampling techniques. A sample of 300 respondents which comprises of male principals and female principals from the study area were purposely selected for the study. The instrument used for the study was the questionnaire which was validated by the supervisor. The study adopted a survey design, since this method allows determination of sample characteristics for a large group in a very short time. The findings reveals that, the poor attitude of secondary schools heads towards school inspection in the strength of these findings it was recommended that further research can be carried out examine if the present performance of students is influenced by the role of performance of school inspection. The experience of the principal affects the attitude towards school inspection, also that the location of the school do affects the principal attitude toward school inspection. It concluded that are the challenges delimitating against effective supervision and management of education in the region. The study recommends that principals should be given the right orientation on the importance of school inspection as a way of enhancing performance in the education sector. This will enable them to see inspection as part and parcel of education process.

                                           TABLE OF CONTENT

Chapter one


Background of the study

Statement of problem

Purpose of the study

Research question

Significance of study

Scope of the study


Definition of terms

Chapter two       

Literature review

Chapter three    

Population of study

Sampling procedure

Data collection

Validity of instrument

Administration of instrument

Method of data analysis

Chapter four      

Presentation and data analysis

Chapter five      










                                        CHAPTER ONE



Supervision is central to the survival and improvement of an institution such as the secondary school system, hence it is not out of place to call it educational supervision. In that case, schools supervision is a large umbrella of supervision in educational settings of which this study will focus on academic supervision. It is of a fact that we have two types of educational supervision in secondary schools which are administrative and academic. The principals and vice-principals have tailored their daily activities in schools to administrative supervision, leaving the academic supervision barely open to external supervisors whose efforts have no continuity and constancy, thereby academic achievements of students under the direct responsibility of teachers had continue to be declining. This has provided escape route for external supervisors to declare that they have played their own part, what is now left is for the teachers to do their own part.

Education remains the biggest instrument for academic progress, social mobilization, political survival and effective national development of any country, it constitutes the largest enterprise/industry in Nigeria that is why, and the government continues to ensure that funds, school facilities, instructional materials, teaching personnel and a beneficial learning environment are made available for the sector in Nigeria. The federal Government has also continuously encouraged secondary education by adopting a social demand approach towards planning the education sector by subsidizing the SSCE fee in the state since 2012 in line with Archibong’s (2013) position that quality education does not just occur miraculously but can be achieved through continuous improvement efforts by the stakeholders in the education enterprise. And to be practical, there is a wide gap between external supervisors and teachers, which the vice principals can academically and professionally filled as connectors and implementers between supervisors and teachers of which my paper want to fill the missing gap. In recent times, education stakeholders have expressed their concern over the poor performance of students in the SSCE. Some blamed the school administrators (principals) and the teachers while some blamed the students themselves and the parents. Whoever to be blamed, the fact remains that, the school and its organizational management has correlation with the academic achievement of the students (Olaleye, 2013). Sule (2013) in a response to critics on the quality of education and as a measure of improvement on the glaring downward trend on educational achievement opined that school supervision (internal or external) has become a veritable instrument for checking teachers’ job performance. Instructional supervision occupies a unique place in the entire education system and it becomes absolutely expedient to give it prominent attention. In a contemporary Nigeria, instructional supervision is regarded as the process of enhancing the professional growth of the teachers, the curriculum and improving the techniques of teaching in the classroom through democratic interactions between the Teacher and the Supervisor (Okendu, 2012).

Primarily education is the first stage of education and is acceptable key to success or failure of the whole educational system. The secondary school is recognized as a spring board to secondary and higher education particularly in Nigeria. Secondary school level can be regarded as an instrument in socio-economic development process. To this end substantial sum of money are embarked in Nigeria government annual budget for the [provision of education services in recognition of the importance of the secondary school education to the federal government of Nigeria accorded it a place in the new national policy on education formulated in 1977 and reviewed in 1981.

The schools are becoming large and consequently more bureaucratic. A large number of teachers are either unqualified thereby placing a greater burden on the school heads who are trying to coordinate the school activity. The school system in Nigeria is a major industry catering for the mass education of its citizens to meet the demand and challenges of a changing world consequently the school system has become very complex requiring that report and budget for the various activity and program geared toward the maximum utilization of the scare resources goals these responsibility according to Aderoimu and Ehimentalor (1941) is primary those of administration and supervision in Nigeria for instance the Universal Primary Education school in 1955 opened that gateway to educational expansion although it was first practice in the scheme in the western region other regional government soon borrowed the idea. The introduction of the scheme in western region increased significantly the number of schools which are required to be inspected. Subsequently, military government in Nigeria sustained the idea it wax therefore not surprising when in 1976 then military government of Nigeria Gen. Olusegun Obasanjo declared free Universal Primary Education through out the country, coupled with this is the recent one also launched by retainers Gen. Olusegun Obasanjo free Universal Basic Education in the year 2000 throughout the country.

Free education should be provided for all citizens of age from primary to junior secondary schools level to foster rapid economic development, the aim of the scheme was to effect national development. The high increased in the number of teachers required for the programme to cope with the increase in the number of teacher to enhance teaching learning activities in the classroom. In Nigeria, the geographical division are on local government basis and each local government area office is headed by a Chief Inspector of Education. There are other subordinate workers working with the Chief Inspector among who are the Inspector of school.

Inspection was defined by Wiles (1969) pg. 46 as assistance in the development of a better teaching learning situation. Inspection therefore is recognized as a vital ingredient in enable the teaching learning process to thrive since it exports for the primary aim and improving the instructional programme of the school. Hence, good supervision is a pre-condition for an effective pupils’ teachers relationship which is indispensable for the success of any educational system. With the new 6-3-3-4 system and the ever growing demand for education there is the need for functional types of school inspection that would contributes of improving and maintaining standard in our school bases on the foregoing consideration the main objective of supervision in school has been spelt out as follows;

The establishment and maintenance of standard the control, comparison and corrective action for the purpose of attaining specific overall objective of the educational system. Ogunsaju (1983) education supervision perception and practice in Nigeria.

Inspite of the fact that some form of supervision is sometimes carried out by inspectors of education, principal and other to check the teaching learning process in the classroom, the Nigeria child having spent about six years in the secondary school of twelve years including secondary school still perform relatively poor. There are good numbers of pupils who fail in the common entrance examination or West Africa School Certificate Examination with many getting a pass grade. It is therefore asserted that if the function of school inspections and the role of principal are properly spelt out, school in Edo State in particular Ovia North East which L.G.A. at the secondary school level which is the block of a child education level help in maintain and improving standard in later years.


Inspection in school is concerned with the improvement of instructional ideas, which involves people administration supervisors, teachers, pupils, parents and other citizens it also involves curriculum, the subjection matter, its selection and arrangement. The content of inspections not only a body of techniques but also a substantial body of knowledge and understanding purpose should be the content of inspection in many situation where work done by group of people have to be effective as a unit. The falling standard in the educational system may not be unconnected with the poor quality of inspection and principal attitude towards school inspection specifically in ordered local government area of Edo State in particular. Over the years now, there have several interpretations and misinterpretations about inspectors by teachers and school administrators. Some see inspectors as fault-finders who are mainly interested in reporting teachers to appropriate quarters for punishment without giving them any advice to improve their teaching techniques, indulging in extortion by their frequent visit, jobless that doesn’t have anything doing in the office, people that want them sacked and be replaced with their relatives, even incompetent people, witch hunters, etc. In the same vein, some see inspectors as colleagues and partners in progress that inspires, stimulate, corrects, coordinate and guide teachers in their professional growth hence promoting initiative, freedom, resourcefulness, belongingness and enthusiasm among teachers, pupils and the community. Despite all odds, inspection is still very strong and will still be in progress so long as the education sector is concerned but the question is: how do school administrators and teachers see inspectors? How do they react during inspection? How do they feel after inspection? These and other burning issues prompted this study, to determine the attitude of secondary school principals towards school inspection in Ovia North East L.G.A. of Edo State


The purpose of the study is to determine the attitude of secondary school principals towards school inspection in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State. The researcher would be interested in findings out whether;

  1. a)   The experience of the principal affects the attitude towards school inspection
  2. b)   There are any difference between the principal attitude towards school inspection.
  3. c)   The experience make any difference in the perception of obstacle that hinder effective inspection and principal’s attitude towards school inspection.
  4. d)   The location of the school affects the principal attitude toward school inspection.


Specifically, the project will seek to find answer to the following research question;

  1. Does the experience of the principal affects the attitude towards school inspection in Ovia North East L.G.A. of Edo State?
  2. Is there any difference between the principal attitude towards school inspection?
  • Does experience make any difference in the perception of obstacle that hinder effective inspection and principal’s attitude towards school inspection?
  1. Does the location of the school affects the principal attitude toward school inspection?


There seems to be general census among the public that the standard of education has fallen which they may have arrived at by comparing the academic achievement of secondary school child today with that of yesterday performed better than today. Without the fallen standard at the primary level will sure affect the standard in the secondary school. These fear therefore add momentum to the need for adequate and positive contribution in the principal attitude towards the role of school inspection.


This study examined the principal attitude towards the role of school inspection as the occupies different position in educational system.

Therefore, some teachers, principals and headmistress were required to give information as regards the study. The study is limited to some selected secondary schools in Ovia North East L.G.A. of Edo State.


It is assumed in this study that principal attitude towards the role of school inspection is not encouraging. It is also assumed that some obstacles must be in the way of effective administration and inspection of school.


Perception: Perception in the study means the angle from which something is seen by person depending on its needs disposition and experience.

Principal: This is usually the administrative and professional heads of the primary school.

Primary school: This is the first stage of Nigeria educational system where a six years course is offered officially, pupils enter primary one, which is a the first year of the age of five to six.

School inspector’s officer in the ministry of education statutory charged with the responsibility of school inspection.

Experienced and inexperienced headmaster: The principal refer to those who have serve ten years and above on the job and the inexperience ones those who has serve less than ten year on the job as headmaster.