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ABSTRACT

 

This study assessed the availability and utilization of computer packages in teaching and learning of Islamic Studies in secondary schools in Kaduna State. The research work was as a result of ineffective usage of instructional materials in teaching and learning of Islamic Studies by teachers of Islamic Studies because of their inability to interact with the teaching environment such as the use of computers. According to WAEC Chief Examiner‟s report, this has led to the students‟ subsequent years of poor performance in the WAEC results of 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015. Survey research design was used for the study.The sample for the study comprised of 300 students made up of 199 males and 101 females and 46 teachers made up of 31 males and 15 females of Islamic Studies, selected from the three senatorial zones of Kaduna State. Simple random sampling was used to select the number of the students and teachers in the three senatorial zones. A structured questionnaire on the availability and utilization of computer was used for data collection.The instrument was validated by three experts in relevant fields. The pilot study was conducted in two Government Secondary Schools in Katsina State and was part of the target population. Cronbach Alpha was used to determine the reliability of the instrument and a value of 0.81 was obtained.Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions. All hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using t- test. The findings indicated that, the computer equipment available in the Schools were adequate for teaching and learning of Islamic Studies in Kaduna State‟s Secondary Schools and were adequately utilized. However, there are many challenges facing the utilization of computers for the teaching and learning of Islamic Studies in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State among which are inadequate computer hardware, poor infrastructural facilities and poor power supply. It was recommended that provision of computer hardware and software be given priority.

 

 

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  TABLE OF CONTENTS  
Title Page i
Declaration ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgement v
Abstract vii
Table of Contents viii
List of Tables xii
List of Appendices xiii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION  
1.1 BackgroundtotheStudy 1
1.2 StatementoftheProblem 5
1.3 ObjectivesoftheStudy 6
1.4 ResearchQuestions 7
1.5 Null Hypotheses 8
1.6 BasicAssumptions 9
1.7 SignificanceoftheStudy 9
1.8 ScopeoftheStudy 11
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEWOFRELATEDLITERATURE  
2.1 Introduction 12
2.2 ConceptualFramework 12
2.3 ReligionandIslamic Studies 13

 

 

 

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2.4 ConceptsofComputer 14  
2.5 HistoryofComputer   16
2.6 AvailabilityofComputerinTeachingandLearningofIslamicStudies 23  
2.7 CharacteristicsofComputer   28
2.8 UsesofComputerinTeachingandLearningofIslamicStudies 31  
2.9 PerceptionofTeachersandStudentstowardComputer 35  
2.10 Effectsof the Utilization of Computerin TeachingandLearningof    
  IslamicStudies 37  
2.10.1 Positive effects of the Utilization of Computer in Teaching and Learning 38
2.10.2 Limitations of the Utilization of Computer in Teaching and Learning 39
2.10.3 Constructivist Theory   42
2.11 TheoreticalFramework   43
2.11.1 Jerome Bruner‟s Cognitive Theory of Learning   44
2.11.2 Behavioral Theory   44
2.12 ReviewofRelatedEmpiricalStudies   45
2.13 SummaryofRelatedLiterature 51  
CHAPTERTHREE: RESEARCHMETHODOLOGY    
3.1 Introduction   53
3.2 ResearchDesign   53
3.3 Population of theStudy   53
3.4 SampleandSamplingProcedure   54
3.5 InstrumentforDataCollection 54  
3.5.1 Validationofthe Instrument   55
3.5.2 PilotTesting   55

 

 

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3.5.3 ReliabilityoftheInstrument 56
3.6 ProcedureforDataCollection 56
3.7 ProcedureforDataAnalysis 57
CHAPTERFOUR: RESULTSANDDISCUSSIONS  
4.1 Introduction 58
4.2 AnswerstoResearchQuestions 58
4.3 TestofHypotheses 67
4.4 DiscussionFindings 72
CHAPTERFIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONANDRECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction 75
5.2 Summary 75
5.2.1 Summary of Findings 76
5.3 Conclusion 77
5.4 Recommendations 78
5.5 Suggestions for FurtherStudies 79
5.6 Limitations oftheStudy 79
5.7 Contribution to knowledge  
REFERENCES 84
APPENDICES 89

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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    LIST OF TABLES  
Table 4.1: Mean score of the group on the availability of computer equipment
    for teaching and learning of Islamic Studies 59
Table 4.2: Mean score of teachers on the level of the utilization of computer
    equipment for teaching of Islamic Studies 61
Table 4.3: Mean score of students on the level of utilization of computer
    equipment for learning of Islamic Studies 63
Table 4.4: Mean score of teachers on challenges faced in the utilization of
    computer equipment for teaching and of Islamic Studies 64
Table 4.5: Mean score of students on challenges faced in the utilization of
    computer for teaching and learning of Islamic Studies 66
Table 4.6: Two sample t-test on mean responses of teachers and students on
    the level of availability of computer equipment for teaching and
    learningof Islamic Studies 68
Table 4.7: Two sample t-test on the level of utilization of computer equipment
    for teaching of Islamic Studies by male and female teachers 69
Table 4.8: Two sample t-test on the level of the utilization of computer equipment
    in learning of Islamic Studies by male and female students. 70
Table 4.9: Two sample t-test on the challenges faced in utilization of computer
    for teaching of Islamic Studies by male and female teachers 71
Table 4.10: Two sample t-test on challenges faced in the utilization of computer in
    learning of Islamic Studies by male and female students 71

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1         Background to the Study

 

 

Religion is a social institution of a belief system, a mental complex and a system of worship found in every human society. Religion as a social institution is characterized by its universality, its rituals, its sacredness and its persistence Nseabasi & Oluwabamide (2008) Religion exists in all societies because, it offer answers and some purported solutions to such ultimate questions as why we fail or succeed and why we die (Udo, 2006). Different culture produce vary different systems of religious beliefs but, they all share a common feature, theycentre on a fundamental belief in the supernatural. Religion is the root of formal education in Nigeria (Udo, 2006).

 

Education has been the pillar upon which all meaningful national developments are built. It is the instrument which sets the pace for growth, development and understanding of issues in their entire ramification (Dalhatu, 2010). For education to be relevant in a society, it has to be effectively taught. And this can only be achieved through the appropriate use of teaching methods, instructional materials and its relevance to the teaching of Islamic Studies. Teaching method is an orderly procedure in which a teacher uses to direct students in the development of knowledge, skills, attitudes and habits (Habila, 2008). Instructional materials are those things which a teacher uses or manipulates in the process of his teaching in order to enhance learning process (Ogunleye, 2004). Dalhatu (2010) defined instructional materials as those hardwares or sets of tools at the disposal of a teacher that help in facilitating teaching and learning and development of knowledge in Secondary Schools.

 

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The development of knowledge, skill, attitude and character is an important function of educational institution known as school; this made Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN, 2004), to emphasize on the need to equip youth with general education and religious knowledge which should be acquired right from Secondary School. Secondary School is the second tier of institution in Nigeria which is designed to prepare individual youth to acquire knowledge of arts, science, skills, attitudes and sound moral character required as graduate at sub-professional level. Secondary Schools give full trainingintended to prepare students for entry into various discipline subject areas, among which include Islamic Studies (Magaji, 2015).

 

Islamic Studies is to facilitate the growth of the total personality of man through the training of man‟s spirit, intellect, rational, self- feelings and bodily senses. In Islam, knowledge without faith and good behaviour is only a partial knowledge or a new kind of ignorance (Yusuf & Umar 2014). Generally, the aims and objectives of Islamic Studies is to develop the whole personality of the individual who is religious, moral, honest, sociable, humble, generous, kind, patient, obedient, tolerant and lenient to all mankind regardless of their social status, tribe, rank, or nationality. The knowledge of Islamic Studies is being taught to the students by the help of a teacher. The teacher as the implementer of any curriculum materials or subject programme has the greatest influence on the teaching and learning process. A teacher is a person who acquired knowledge in a formal training system that equipped them with required pedagogy for effective transmission of knowledge tostudents, (FGN, 2004). For effective teaching of Islamic Studies to take place, it is considered appropriate that, prospective Islamic teachers interact with teaching environment. At present, most of the teachers of Islamic Studies

 

 

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emphasized more on the theoretical aspects in the laboratory or classroom with little or no practical due to lack of computer facilities. For a teacher to achieve the objectives of Islamic Studies, the teacher must demonstrate the ability to bring intended learning outcome and show positive attitude towards the use of computer (Patrick, 2013).

 

Computer is an electronic device for storing and analyzing information fed into it. Paul, Moses and Brandford (2013) sees computer as electronic device that can quickly receive, store, process and retrieve information fed into it. Imahe and Imhonda (2005) defined computer as a machine that aid man in his common and complex businesses in life. Also, computer plays an influential part in accomplishing many pedagogical functions such as measuring and evaluating knowledge, giving feedback, observing activities and performance of students, providing students with motivation and considering individual differences, regulating education level according to existing knowledge and progress of the students and supporting instruction with such materials as graphics, pictures, animation and sound Sahin & Yildirim(2000).Computer has different applications in various fields especially the field of education. It is useful and helpful in the teaching and learning process (Setzer, 2000). Therefore, computer has a great effect upon our educational system as such; teachers should interact with the physical reality of the computer and learn how to use the computer.

 

The importance of computer as instructional materials in teaching and learning cannot be overemphasized, considering the role it plays if used effectively. In the arts of teaching and learning, computer facilitates active learning among students and it saves teachers time and energy (Dalhat, 2010). Computer is an instructional material which helps the teachers to discharge their duties effectively (Obinna, 2012). Effective

 

 

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utilization of computer in teaching and learning promotes good retentive memory because, the students see, hear and observe (Dalhat, 2010, Obinna, 2012). Therefore, the rate of remembrance is enhanced. The use of computer cannot be achieved without the availability of the functional computer in the schools ( Jimoh, 2009).

 

Availability of computer as instructional materials can be referred to as having the required computers in their desired quantity (Obinna, 2012). Digbori-Bestman (2011) defines availability as a state of being sufficient in satisfying the requirements. Ogunleye (2004) defines availability as enough in quantity or a good enough quality for a particular purpose. However, it is essential to equip the school computer laboratory with enough computers as instructional materials for effective teaching and learning to achieve the aim of producing students with sound knowledge, attitudes and characters. Provisions of availability of computer as an instructional material for Islamic Studies teachers are paramount for attainment of Islamic Studies objectives (Dalhat, 2010). Availability for the purpose of this study is the provision of sufficient computers as instructional materials for Islamic teachers in teaching and learning of Islamic Studies in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State. Kaduna State is the centre of Northern Nigeria and centre of Islam for coordinating activities of Muslims in Nigeria (Abubakar & Lolo 2014).

 

The purpose of teaching and learning implies that, the students comprehend and relate what is being presented rather than to memorize it verbatim. Meaningful teaching and learning is expected to be carried out using instructional material such as computer to enhancestudents‟ performance and interest in Islamic Studies,which is lacking. This has prompted the need for the research on availability and utilization of computer in teaching and learning of Islamic Studies in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State.

 

 

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1.2         Statement of the Problem

 

The Chief Examiner‟s report of West Africa Examination Council2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 statistics showed that, theperformances of students in Islamic Studies in external examinationisbelow average especially in Kaduna State and Nigeria in general.The government and the general public blamed the poor performance of Islamic Studies on unqualified teachers employed with little or no teaching methods, lack of appropriate or obsolete instructional materials such as wooden tablets and poor attitude of teachers and learners toward the use of computer in teaching and learning of Islamic Studies, (Diraso, Manabete, Amalo, Mbudai, Arabi and Jaoji, 2013). This has been a source of worry to researchers, teachers, parents and the students themselves. Teachers‟ use of ineffective instructional materials in teaching Islamic Studies has been found to contribute to this persistent poor achievement in Islamic Studies (Dalhatu, 2010).

 

There is the need therefore, to explore the effectiveness of other instructional materials to see if they can enhance achievement and interest of learners in learning Islamic Studies. One of such instructional material is the Computer. Computers have been found to be effective in some subjects like history, Christians Religion Studies among others (Ifeakor, 2005).

 

The above appalling situation in education in Kaduna State especially the Secondary Schools becomes imperative to carryoutresearch on availability and utilization of computer in teaching and learning of Islamic Studies in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State.

 

 

 

 

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1.3         Objectives of the Study

 

The aim of this study is to assess availability and utilization of computer packages in teaching and learning of Islamic Studies in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State. Specifically, the study seeks to find out the:

 

  1. Level of teachers and students on the availability of computer equipment for teaching and learning of Islamic Studies in Kaduna State Secondary Schools.

 

  1. Level of teachers on theutilization of computer equipment for teaching of Islamic Studies in Kaduna State Secondary Schools.

 

  • Levelof students on the utilization of computers for learning of Islamic Studies in Kaduna State Secondary Schools.

 

  1. Challenges faced by the teachers in the utilization of computers for teaching of Islamic Studies in Kaduna State Secondary Schools.

 

  1. Challenges faced by students in the utilization of computers for learning of Islamic Studies in Kaduna State Secondary Schools.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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1.4         Research Questions

 

The following research questions were raised to guide the study:

 

  1. What is the difference between the mean opinion score of teachers and students on the level of availability of computer equipment for teaching and learning of Islamic Studies in Kaduna State Secondary Schools?

 

  1. What is the difference between the mean opinion score of teachers on the level of utilization of computer equipment for teaching of Islamic Studies in Kaduna StateSecondary Schools?

 

  • What is the difference between the mean opinion score of students on the level of utilization of computer equipment for learning of Islamic Studies in Kaduna State Secondary Schools?

 

  1. What is the difference between the mean opinion score on the challenges faced by teachers in the utilization of computer in teaching of Islamic Studies in Kaduna State Secondary Schools?

 

  1. What is the difference between the mean opinion score on challenges faced by the students in the utilizationof computer in learning of Islamic Studies in Kaduna StateSecondary Schools?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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1.5         Null Hypotheses

 

The following null hypotheses were tested at 0.05level of significance:

 

Ho1There is no significant difference between the mean responses of teachers and students on the level of availability of computer equipment in teaching and learning of Islamic Studies in Kaduna State Secondary Schools.

 

Ho2There is no significant difference between the mean responses of teachers on the level of utilization of computer equipment in teaching of Islamic Studies in Kaduna State Secondary Schools.

 

Ho3There is no significant difference between the mean responses of students on the level of utilization of computer equipment in learning of Islamic Studies in Kaduna State Secondary Schools.

 

Ho4There is no significant difference between the mean responses of the challenges faced by teachers on the utilization of computers in teaching of Islamic Studies in Kaduna State Secondary Schools.

 

Ho5There is no significant difference between the mean responses of the challengesfaced by students on the utilization of computers in teaching and learning of Islamic Studies in Kaduna State Secondary Schools.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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1.6     Basic Assumptions

 

In conducting the research work, the Researcher made the following assumptions:

 

  1. That computers are available in teaching and learning of Islamic Studies in Kaduna State Secondary Schools

 

  1. That teachers and students in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State make use of computers in teaching and learning of Islamic Studies

 

  • That the perception of teachers and students toward the use of computers in teaching and learning of Islamic Studies in Kaduna State are positive

 

  1. That there is no negative effects in using computer in teaching and learning of Islamic Studies in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State

 

1.7         Significance of the Study

 

The findings of the study would be of immense benefit to the students, teachers, government, curriculum plannersand school administrators/principals, department of Islamic Studies, ministry of education, parents and the general society.

 

The findings of the study would be beneficial to the students, teachers, and parents with the knowledge that would help them to accept the use of computer in teaching and learning of Islamic Studies in Secondary Schools, the teachers would be able to teach the students effectively with the outcome of the findings when computers are provided. The findings of this study would also be of benefit to students and teachers to do away with the old system of rote learning and embrace the new system of innovative technology that is presently practiced by other subject teachers and students. In a similar vein, the school administrators/principals would benefit from the findings of the study to understand the importance of computer in teaching and learning not only to

 

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teaching of concepts in Islamic Studies but, all other subjects that are being taught in the Schools by the teachers concerned, this would enhance teaching and learning in the Schools.

 

The findings of the study will be significance to the Department of Educational Foundations and Curriculum, especially Instruction Technology section, the study will give them ample privilege to provide computers in the Instructional Technology Laboratory as one of the instructional materials. It would assist the Ministry of Education to take the right measures being the overseer of the government on the secondary schools education, will benefit from the findings of this study to assist them in suggesting the right measures to take in making computers available in secondary schools and supervising their uses by teachers and students. Curriculum Planners would find the recommendations of this study relevant, as it will help them to discover the need to include the use of computer in the School Curriculum.

 

Also from the findings of the study, parents would appreciate the fact that their children are now being well taught in school with the use of computers. The findings of the study will benefits the larger community and the general public with the knowledge of how to use computer and embrace the computer in teaching and learning of Islamic Studies in School and at home, and more computer business centers would be opened in the community for greater computer literacy and economic development. The society in general stands to benefit in the overall dividends of the good works carried out in this research dissertation because, the students will later pass out of school to either join the labour market, become self-employed or proceed to any tertiary institution to further their education where they will need the computer as their aids for instructions. The research

 

 

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study is significance because; it will change the society for good and economically develop the country at large.

 

 

 

 

1.8         Scope of the Study

 

The study assessed the availability and utilization of computer in teaching and learning of Islamic Studies in Secondary School in Kaduna State. The study is restricted to teachers and Senior Secondary Schools year two students of Islamic Studies in Kaduna State.The study is also restricted to availability and utilization of computers in teaching and learning of Islamic Studies in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, three senatorial zones comprising of Kaduna North, Kaduna South and Kaduna Central. In each zone, two schools offering Islamic Studies wereselected based on gender and geographical locations.

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