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Abstract

Presently in Nigeria, there is a general feeling of insecurity among the Nigerian populace. The terrorizing effect of the activities of the fundamentalist sect, Boko Haram on the socio-economic condition of the Yobe states of Nigeria has become so devastating that some financial institutions and other business ventures have closed down in many areas, thereby causing relocation of non-indigenes to their own states. It is based on the above that this study seeks to find out the extent the Boko Haram insurgency has affected the socioeconomic situation in the Yobe states of Nigeria. During the course of the study, it was discovered that the insecurity situation in the north was so tense that even the indigenes have started to send their children and wards down to the southern parts of the country for their education.

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

Since Nigeria’s independence in 1960, Nigerians have been faced with a lot of problems emanating from disorderliness, confusion and the latest insecurity development. To be precise, the first problem Nigeria encountered was the military intervention in the Nigeria’s polity. The military administrations which were the fall-outs of the coups and counter coups marked the beginning of the country’s calamities and misfortunes. These were followed by the claims and agitations for resource control by the Niger-Delta region, which in practical term means demand for larger shares of the oil revenue. The inability of the government to meet up with such demand, led to the militant groups from the region taking arms and waged war against Nigerians. The timely intervention of late President Alhaji Yar’Adua helped to quench the burning flame ignited by the militants. Nigerians got relieved following the introduction of amnesty policy into Nigeria’s political and democratic structures by the same Yar’Adua administration. Yobe state is coping with a violent underground group, Boko Haram. The targeting of prisons, barracks, security officers and politicians makes the entire population feel unsafe, since violence has become unpredictable. The state apparatus is so visibly challenged that it tends to overreact and actually kills even more civilians than Boko Haram does. Boko Haram has deep roots in the social and economic marginalization of a large section of the northern states’ population. The official name of Boko Haram that is object of discussion here is Jama’ atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’ await wal-Jihad which in Arabic Language means “People of the way of Prophet Muhammed (peace be unto him) and Community (of Muslims) in line with the earlier generation of Muslims” and not Boko Haram which simply means “Western secular education is Islamically prohibited”. Boko Hara has also been defined to means that evangelism deceptively camouflages as Western Education is Islamically unacceptable (DCCN, 2009). Please note that the origin of the name “Boko Haram” have been traced to Media and Public/Community coinage (DCCN, 2009). In prosecuting their objective, Boko Haram are use to bombing Churches, Mosques, Police Stations, Schools; Universities inclusive and other Government owned Properties. As well as privately owned property without excluding innocent souls through the machinery of suicide bombers as well as slaughtering and kidnapping people; alien inclusive which have resulted to demise of the larger percentage of the Captives. The most pitiable fact is that most of those suicide bombers are teenagers which can be summarily belief to be the resultant effect of brainwashing. It is my humble view that Boko Haram during the cause of prosecuting their objective has done great harm to this Nation order than other set of militants that have emerged in Nigeria. The economic effects of militancy insurgency in Nigeria simply connote consequential effect on people and government’s life which can be viewed from two different perspectives. They are the effect on the State that is, Nigeria and individual member of the State that is, Nigerians particularly residents of Yobe State. The militants; not limited to Boko Haram alone by their nature are used to crippling the economic activities of any place they spread their tentacles as well as led to migration of people from the affected place due to restiveness. No wonder the Nation Newspaper (2013:3) reported about the activities of Boko Haram thus: Borno and neighboring Yobe State – the epicenter of the activities of the sect – have been crippled economically. Thousands of people have died in the sect’s bloody campaign. It must be noted that Boko Haram have not only led to closure and or abandonment of people’s business activities within the state but also led to migration of people from the state as well as reduction of people’s patronage of product from Northern Region because of rumour that member of Boko Haram are planning to send poisonous product from their region to other parts of Nigeria. No wonder Mr Umar Ibrahim Yakubu (Leadership Newspaper: 2012) opined thus in respect of Boko Haram: We discovered that 97 per cent of businesses were negatively affected by the security problem. Some of them had to close down, some of them had to retrench their workers, and others had to cut down in the number of hours of operation For instance, commercial banks have been forced to review their operational hours to begin from 9.00am to 12.00 noon as against the normal operational period of 8.00am to 4.00pm (Mohammed, 2012:2). According to Mohammed, this is a part of efforts by these financial institutions to safeguard their business premises. Under this new operational arrangement, bank customers especially traders, find it very difficult to deposit their daily proceeds in the banks due to the limited banking operational hours that are no longer in their favour. Alternatively, these helpless traders have to hide their money in their shops. That is why in addition to the frequent suicide bombings, there are rising cases of shop breakings and burglaries in the affected areas. The growing insecurity in the north has seriously affected the socioeconomic condition such that many people including businessmen are fleeing to more peaceful environment in the southern parts of the country. More so, the prices of foodstuffs have started increasing astronomically following the drastic fall in the transportation of the foodstuffs from north to the south where they (foodstuffs) are greatly consumed. This is because the traders farm south find it unsafe to travel to north where they are sold. Consequently, these form products are stockpiled wasting in the hands of farmers who rely on them as the only source of livelihood. Yobe state is coping with a violent underground group, Boko Haram. The targeting of prisons, barracks, security officers and politicians makes the entire population feel unsafe, since violence has become unpredictable. The state apparatus is so visibly challenged that it tends to overreact and actually kills even more civilians than Boko Haram does. Boko Haram has deep roots in the social and economic marginalisation of a large section of the northern states’ population. The official name of Boko Haram that is object of discussion here is Jama’ atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’ await wal-Jihad which in Arabic Language means “People of the way of Prophet Muhammed (peace be unto him) and Community (of Muslims) in line with the earlier generation of Muslims” and not Boko Haram which simply means “Western secular education is Islamically prohibited”. Boko Hara has also been defined to means that evangelism deceptively camouflages as Western Education is Islamically unacceptable (DCCN, 2009). Please note that the origin of the name “Boko Haram” have been traced to Media and Public/Community coinage (DCCN, 2009). In prosecuting their objective, Boko Haram are use to bombing Churches, Mosques, Police Stations, Schools; Universities inclusive and other Government owned Properties. As well as privately owned property without excluding innocent souls through the machinery of suicide bombers as well as slaughtering and kidnapping people; alien inclusive which have resulted to demise of the larger percentage of the Captives. The most pitiable fact is that most of those suicide bombers are teenagers which can be summarily belief to be the resultant effect of brainwashing. It is my humble view that Boko Haram during the cause of prosecuting their objective has done great harm to this Nation order than other set of militants that have emerged in Nigeria. The economic effects of militancy insurgency in Nigeria simply connote consequential effect on people and government’s life which can be viewed from two different perspectives. They are the effect on the State that is, Nigeria and individual member of the State that is, Nigerians particularly residents of Yobe State. The militants; not limited to Boko Haram alone by their nature are used to crippling the economic activities of any place they spread their tentacles as well as led to migration of people from the affected place due to restiveness. No wonder the Nation Newspaper (2013:3) reported about the activities of Boko Haram thus: Borno and neighboring Yobe State – the epicenter of the activities of the sect – have been crippled economically. Thousands of people have died in the sect’s bloody campaign. It must be noted that Boko Haram have not only led to closure and or abandonment of people’s business activities within the state but also led to migration of people from the state as well as reduction of people’s patronage of product from Northern Region because of rumour that member of Boko Haram are planning to send poisonous product from their region to other parts of Nigeria. No wonder Mr Umar Ibrahim Yakubu (Leadership Newspaper: 2012) opined thus in respect of Boko Haram: We discovered that 97 per cent of businesses were negatively affected by the security problem. Some of them had to close down, some of them had to retrench their workers, and others had to cut down in the number of hours of operation For instance, commercial banks have been forced to review their operational hours to begin from 9.00am to 12.00 noon as against the normal operational period of 8.00am to 4.00pm (Mohammed, 2012:2). According to Mohammed, this is a part of efforts by these financial institutions to safeguard their business premises. Under this new operational arrangement, bank customers especially traders, find it very difficult to deposit their daily proceeds in the banks due to the limited banking operational hours that are no longer in their favour. Alternatively, these helpless traders have to hide their money in their shops. That is why in addition to the frequent suicide bombings, there are rising cases of shopbreakings and burglaries in the affected areas. The growing insecurity in the north has seriously affected the socioeconomic condition such that many people including businessmen are fleeing to more peaceful environment in the southern parts of the country. More so, the prices of foodstuffs have started increasing astronomically following the drastic fall in the transportation of the foodstuffs from north to the south where they (foodstuffs) are greatly consumed. This is because the traders farm south find it unsafe to travel to north where they are sold. Consequently, these form products are stockpiled wasting in the hands of farmers who rely on them as the only source of livelihood.

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The dangerous trend in insecurity came with the emergence of Boko Haram, the Muslim fundamentalist sect, bombing and attacking everything within reach. According to reports, multiple explosions went off one after the other in places like Kano, in the usual manner of attacks by the members of Boko Haram sect in Maiduguri, Damaturu, Potiskum, Gombe, Abuja and Madalla in Niger State (Okpaga, Ugwu and Eme, 2012:77). They attacked government institutions and later expanded to churches thereby inflicting terror and destruction on innocent people. Suicide bombing of the United Nations Secretariat in Abuja on August 26, 2011 did not happen long after a similar attack on the Nigeria Police Force Headquarters on June. Boko Haram otherwise called “Western education is sin,” claimed responsibilities for these and other series of bomb blasts and attacks. It is against this backdrop that the researcher intend to investigate the effect of book-haram on the socio-economic development of Yobe state.

 

  • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

It is pertinent to say that the objective of the study is to investigate the effect of Boko Haram and socioeconomic development of Yobe state. But for the successful completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following objectives;

  1. To ascertain the effect of Boko Haram crises in Yobe state, Nigeria
  2. To ascertain techniques adopted by government in managing the crises of book haram and socioeconomic development
  • To investigate the effect of terrorism on economic development of Yobe state.
  1. To ascertain the effect of Boko Haram in retarding foreign direct investment in Yobe state.

1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

For the successful completion of the study the following hypotheses was formulated:

H0terrorism does not have any significant effect on the economic development of Yobe state.

 

H1terrorism does have a significant effect on the economic development of Yobe state.

H0Boko Haram terrorism has no significant impact on the economic development of Nigeria.

H2Boko Haram terrorism has a significant impact on the economic development of Nigeria.

  • RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;

  1. Does Boko Haram crises have any effect in Yobe state socioeconomic development?
  2. Are the techniques adopted by government in managing the crises of book haram and socioeconomic development in Yobe state effective?
  • Is there any effect of terrorism on economic development of Yobe state?
  1. Does Boko Haram retard foreign direct investment in Yobe state?
    • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to the federal government and the national emergency management agency in developing appropriate strategy in and curtailing the adverse effect of the activities of the Boko Haram sect.

The study will also be useful to the state government; as the findings will guide them in coming up with strategies on how to carter for the survival of the attack of the Boko Haram sect. the study will also of great importance to researchers who wants to embark on investigation in similar topic as the study will serve as a guide to them. Finally the study will be of great importance to academia, teachers, students, lecturers and the general public.

1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study covers Boko Haram and socioeconomic development in Yobe state. In the cause of the study, the researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

 

Availability of research material: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.

Time: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

Finance: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Boko Haram

Boko Haram means no to western education

NEMA

National emergency management agency

Terrorism

Terrorism is, in its broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror or fear, in order to achieve a political, religious, or ideological aim.

  • ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This research work is organized in five chapters for easy understanding as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study it’s based thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion and recommendations made of the study.

 

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