The subject matter of this work is “challenges facing the media in Dissemination of information” in carrying out the research work, the researcher adopted the survey design using the questionnaire measuring instrument; this was to measure the public’s opinion, to ascertain about the media in information dissemination. The researcher further the study by adopting representative sample of the wider population by using non-probability sampling method or judgment method to find out from the public the challenges facing the media in dissemination of information. The researcher used chi-square to analyze the data that was collected from the respondents; it is observed that, there are challenges faced by the media in dissemination of information. Some of the challenges facing the media are posed by the government. The government should allow the media to exercise the law of “freedom of information” this will go a long way in aiding the media to gather information and disseminate to the heterogeneous audience.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page ii
Approval Page iii
Table of Content vii
- Background of the Study 1
- Statement of the Research Problem 10
- Objectives of the Study 11
- Significance of the Study 12
- Research Questions 13
- Research Hypothesis 13
- Theoretical Framework 14
- Scope of the Study 15
- Limitation of the Study 16
- Definition of the Terms 17
2.1 Sources of Literature 20
2.2. Review of Relevant Literature 20
2.3. Summary of Literature 33
3.1. Research Design 36
3.2. Area of the Study 38
3.3 Research Population 38
3.4. Research Sample 39
3.5. Sample Technique 41
3.6. Instrument of Data Collection 41
3.7 Method of Data Collection 42
3.8 Method of Data Analysis 43
3.9 Expected Result 43
PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis 45
4.2 Analysis of Research Questions/Hypothesis 60
4.3 Discussion of Result 67
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
5.1 Summary 72
5.2 Conclusion 73
5.3 Recommendation 74
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Communication as known everywhere has developed over a number of centuries. The sophisticated and complexity which characterized human communication in the modern world are the result of a very long and sustained effort by human beings to improve on one of the most fundamental aspects of their existence.
Thus, referring to this evolution, the McBride commission has noted that, “As the world has advanced the task of communication has become even more complex, in explaining this complexity, McBride and his colleagues (McBride et al, 1981, P.3), have this to say “ throughout history, human beings sought to improve their ability to receive and assimilate information about their surroundings at the same time to increase the speed, clarity and variety of their methods for transmission of information”- quoted in (Okunna, 1994 Page 1-2). Therefore, following the above assertion it can be submitted that, the origin of the media and its responsibility to disseminate information, most importantly in Nigeria context dates back to the era of the early press in the year 1800-1929. It was the very first time Newspaper emerged in the country in the name of “Iwe Irohin”.
However, the development of Nigerian press is purely classified into three as follows, from 1800-1920 (Early press), 1927-1960 (National press), 1960-date (Modern or Contemporary press). These were viewed as the chronological order of the evolution of print media.
Thus, in 1940, the Presbyterian Mission established the first printing school in Calabar the reason for this, is to increase the literacy level of the people as of then. And, in 1845, an Anglican Missionary Rev. Henry Townsend, established another printing press as well as printing school at the mission compound in Abeokuta. Five years later (1859), Rev. Townsend moved forward to establish the first newspaper called “Iwe Irohin fun awon era Egba at Yoruba”, Meaning newspaper for the Egba people and Yoruba. Reverend Townsend’s major aim of establishing the newspaper was to increase the reading culture of the Egba and Yoruba people so as to instill literacy desire in them. He also, wanted to embark on Christian stewardship through impacting education and literacy. Iwe Irohin also served as a potent political tool against the British government, thereby informing the mass on the need to know why the British must go.
As the paper was making waves and facing all sorts of criticism, another paper was also established by the Anglo West India, Robert Campbell, he follows Iwe Irohin up with Anglo African with the year 1863. It was printed in Lagos states Campbell’s objective of setting up the newspaper was to exploit the growing interest in Western Education and Enlightenment in Lagos state in 1860 by providing cheap and accessible materials which would educate, inform and entertain its reader. It was the first paper in the country to present another side of the story as it constituted on open competitor with Iwe Irohin.
After that, Richard Beale Blaiz established the Lagos Time and Gold Coast Colony Advertiser in the year 1803-1883. The name of the paper reflected the joint administration of Gold Coast and Lagos at the time. Thus, newspaper establishment journed through the time, Zik established the West African Pilot, up till this day. It is important to note at this juncture that, from the period of the early press and now, there have been an immense function played by the media in order to restore the dilapidating and retrogressing state of Nigerian society.
Interestingly, as the year went by, there was a tremendous dawn in the broadcast media. The radio and television emerged, thereby making waves in the dissemination of information. Radio as a means of communication relies on the use of electro-magnetic waves propagated through space at the speed of light, radio messages were first received in Nigeria through the empire service of the British Broadcasting Commission (BBC) in 1932, At this time, Prospective owners of radio had their transmission through their sets which was wired to the post office. In 1936, radio transmission was established with the commencement of transmission through the RDS (i.e. Radio Distribution service) in Lagos. One feature of the program transmitted at this time was low content of Nigeria or coral productions.
By 1948, there were ten “Wire” Wireless stations serving about 80,000 subscribers in the country. This followed until television came to Nigeria for the first time in 1956. When Queen Elizabeth II came to Nigeria same years, the BBC came with a large contingent. The BBC placed TV screens outside the assembly to enable those outside the gallery of the house to watch what was happening. Nigeria takes credit as the pacesetter in Africa in regards to television broadcasting. That notwithstanding, television broadcasting started in Nigeria as a result of intense political and ethnic rivalry. Account has it that, the first television in Nigeria was the Western Nigeria television (WNTV); Ibadan, it is thus readily clear that, the colonial maters did not make much use of television during their period of rule as television came toward the end of colonialism in Nigeria. This was in operation when Chief Obafemi Awolowo established the WNTV. He was said to have has permission for access to the government owned national broadcasting commission (NBC) so that he would reply to the allegation of act of perfidy leveled against him by the actual grievance that eventually gave rise to regional Broadcasting dates back 1953.
From the year 1953-1960, the Eastern Nigeria television (ENTV) was established, then in April 1962 the federal government started the Nigeria television service, channel 10 Lagos, which was headed by T.O.S. Benson. After the civil war in the country there was significance increase in television broadcasting. Almost all the twelve states of the federation (as at 1972) had their own TV station. Then in 1976, the number of stations had risen to nineteen. In 1977, the Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) was established to function as an independent body. NTA was given charge over television broadcasting in Nigeria; however, the 1979 constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria later remover the exclusive power of the NTA in television broadcasting in Nigeria. The constitution rather allowed for the establishment and operation of broadcasting and stations by different state governments, organization or individual subject to the president’s permission (Okunna 1993, page 55).
At this point, it can be submitted that right from the first day the mass media emerged in Nigeria starting with the print media; the media have been playing the watch dog role in the society, performing a number of functions which benefit the individual as a member of the society. These range from “serious” information and educational functions to “higher” functions like entertainment, information, dissemination, education, advertising, socialization, promotion of culture, motivation, mobilization, integration. They also play the role of agenda setting based on issues that are controversial in nature, here the mass media set the political agenda for the society by deciding what political topics people talk about etc. NTA as one of the media organization has of the mass media to the audience, e.g. election, child abuse, Kidnapping, issue of flooding, crime, war, fire disaster, conflict, fuel subsidy etc; also print media e.g. Newspaper, magazine, Journals, books are not left out.
But suffice it to say that, there are some challenges on the part of the media in using all these channels listed above to send information, thus making the actualization of the noble dream stressful, even NTA a government owned channel has its own shortcomings in the area of playing its roles effectively. Albert, it has been enslaved to the whims and caprices of the political leaders and the government.
Another challenge that weakens the power of Nigeria television Authority (NTA) and other media organization is poor infrastructural facilities. As sobowale (1989: page 304) quoted in Okunna (1994. P. 36) has observed with reference to Nigeria, such basic infrastructural facilities as roads and transport system are in an abysmal state of development; and this limits the work are the media practitioners in gathering information. One can also consider the state of technological expansion and advance in communication technology, with this media have found it difficult to work effectively.
In conclusion, it is submitted with respect that Nigeria television Authority (NTA) has been disseminating information to the masses. But, at the same time has in one way or the other demonstrated the challenges facing its discharge of duties. Despite all odds, this research study will definitely bring changes.
- STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEMS:
Despite all efforts made by the media to tackle the challenges facing them, especially during military government era, there are still Kinds of other problems which constitute threat to the power of disseminating information to the masses. Indeed, it seems as if to say that much has been not achieved in the area of their performance.
For this reason, this research seeks to expose the extent the Nigeria media, NTA in particular is tackling the challenges and the extent they have gone in keeping the masses informed on the day to day events.
- OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The research work tends to know
- If political interest or sentiment imposes serious threat to effective disseminating information on media?
- If economic factor takes precedence in the coverage of program by media?
- If technology factor restricts media from disseminating information to its target audience.
- If the level of literacy of the audience help media in gathering and reporting issues of the day.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
One of the basic functions of the media is to provide the society with information based on accuracy, facts, truth, and objectivity and to uplift our cultural heritage. The task of the researcher is to find out the challenges facing the media most especially in the developing countries like Nigeria.
This study will serve as a basic for carrying out further research and evaluation of how the challenges in the media can be faced bearing in mind that, what is obtainable in NTA station will also be applicable in other media stations in the country. Therefore, there is hope that the finding posted in the work will be beneficial to other students and researchers attempting to research on a similar project.
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- What is the nature of challenges facing the media in information dissemination?
- Do the media have sufficient freedom needed for their operational efficiency?
- Do the media work enough in reporting issues in high places of government administration?
- What is the possible measures that should be used to enhance operation of the media.
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H1 There are serious challenges facing the media information dissemination.
H0 There are no serious challenges facing the media in information dissemination.
H2 The media have sufficient freedom needed for their
H0 The media do not have sufficient freedom needed for
their operational efficiency.
H3 The media work enough in reporting issues in high places of government administration.
H0 The media do not work enough in reporting issues in high places of government administration.
H4 There are possible measures to be used to enhance operation of the media.
H0 There are no possible measures to be used to enhance operation of the media.
- THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
This research study will be based on one of the theories of the press which is libertarian theory. The reason why it is suitable for the study is that, the theory is concerned on the perception for freedom of the press; liberal philosophers like John start mill, Milton greatly advance the advocacy for press freedom (Okoro, et al 2003, p.21).
In the main, libertarian theory prescribes that; an individual should be free to hold and express opinion freely and publish same. The theory does not see need for censorship since it acknowledge the great potentials of human as rational being who can distinguish between truth and falsehood, it further believes in the “self brightening process of the free market place of idea”, where good ideas will eventually eliminate the bad ones if all were granted free expression.
Therefore, the researcher used the theory to back up the media especially the media in Nigeria
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY:
The scope of the study is covered within Nigeria television Authority (NTA).
- LIMITATION OF STUDY:
The researcher chooses to limit the sample population to students and civil servants who watch television programmes drawn from Enugu Network station, because majority of the government owned media like NTA are situated in the state. The students of the institute of management and technology (IMT), Enugu and the students of Enugu state university of science and technology (ESUT), also some students from other higher institutions were included; secondary school students were taken into account, because they are greatly influenced by what they watch.
Also, the sample of civil servants was drawn from both the federal and state civil services.
- DEFINITION OF TERMS:
Operational Definition of Terms.
- Challenges: It means the hindrances or constrains which make the media not to execute their duties effectively and efficiently.
- Media; In this research study, the media simple means those medium or channel via messages or information are passed across from the source to the heterogeneous audience e.g. Nigeria Television Authority (NTA), Enugu state Broadcasting services (ESBS), Federal Radio commission of Nigeria (FRCN) etc. for print media we have newspaper, magazines like the Guardian, Daily Sun, Tell, Punch etc.
- Dissemination; In this research, it means a way by which the media carry out their social responsibility in order to tell their audience what is happening within and outside their society.
- Information; Programmes of the media which are used to educate, entertain, mobilize, sensitize, inform and socialize the masses concerning everyday activities within and outside the society.
Ibid (1993). Small Handbook on Communication. Enugu:
Glanic Ventures Publishers.
Ibid (1993). Small participatory Media Technology in
Development Communication in Nigeria (A Non- Existent Option. Enugu: New Generations Books.
MacBride, S et al (1981). many voice, one world (Nigeria
Edition) Ibadan: University press.
Okoro, N and Agbo B. ( 2003). Writing for the media
society Enugu: Prize Publisher Nsukka.
Okunna, C.S (1994). Introduction to mass communication
Enugu: ABLC Publishers.
Ukonu, M.O. (2006). Dynamics of Mass Communication
Development in Nigeria, Enugu: Rhyce Rerex Publisher.