CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT; EFFECTS ON SOCIAL SECURITY(A case study of Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos state)
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1.0 BACKGROUND TO STUDY
Neglect abuse, which is one of the most prevalent types of child abuse and is frequently paired with other forms of abuse, is another. Child neglect differs from other types of maltreatment in that it refers to errors or carelessness in meeting a child’s basic needs. The recurrent absences in this could have serious health consequences, such the death of a kid. A rough estimate places the prevalence of child neglect at 16.3%. According to age (et al. 2013, between 20.6% to 29.4%), Stoltenborg reported 18.4% for emotional maltreatment and 20.6% for physical abuse. (2016) Clement et al. The prevalence of neglect was shown to range from 22.6% to 42.6% in the epidemiological study on child abuse and neglect in the Balkans (BECAN; Nikolaidis et al. 2018), which was conducted in nine Balkan nations. According to this report, 33.2% of Bosnian and Herzegovina schoolchildren in the previous year and 39.6% of them overall were neglected. The definition of child neglect is not universally agreed upon (Barron & Jenny 2011). Legal definitions tend to concentrate on errors made by parents or other caregivers that cause real or potential injury. According to the World Health Organization (WHO 1999), neglect occurs when a parent fails to provide for a child’s growth in one or more of the following areas when they are able to do so: health, education, emotional development, nutrition, shelter, and safe living conditions. Therefore, neglect can only happen when the family or the guardian has access to reasonable resources. According to Dubowitz et al. (1993), neglect happens whenever a child’s basic needs are not sufficiently satisfied, with a focus on addressing basic requirements as opposed to the parents’ intentions or actions. Shared responsibility between parents, families, communities, and society has taken the place of parental responsibility. Neglect of children can take many different forms, including disregard for health guidelines, refusal to seek medical attention, withholding of food, abandonment of children, poor hygiene, withholding of education, insufficient supervision, and exposing children to drugs and hazardous environments. In this view, there are many different sorts of child neglect, including lack of parental monitoring and neglect of the kid’s physical, emotional, educational, health, and environmental needs (Allnock 2016, Blumenthal 2015, Dubowitz 2013).
Child abuse is a crime that is perpetrated against a child by a parent, caregiver, or elderly neighbor. It covers all types of child abuse, maltreatment, and rights violations that can cause the kid great bodily and emotional pain, or even death. Child abuse is defined as purposeful, inadvertent, or well-intentioned activities that harm children’s physical health, emotional well-being, moral character, and educational welfare by the African Network for the Prevention and Protection Against Child Abuse and Neglect (ANPPCAN). According to this definition, it is child abuse when an adult in charge of the child intentionally mistreats a child or uses the child’s services in an unfair manner out of self-interest. However, the researcher wanted to analyze child abuse as a crime in three physical, sexual, and psychological abuse are the three main aspects. The purposeful and intentional infliction of physical harm is known as physical abuse. either as a form of punishment or as a result of the custodian’s malevolent intent the youngster. It entails physical assault committed by an adult against a youngster. bodily abuse can include any rough treatment that could result in bruises, scrapes, burns, broken bones, lacerations, or other bodily harm. A kid’s integrity and dignity are injured when they are subjected to humiliations like spankings and beatings, slaps in the face, and other acts of physical violence, according to psychologist Alice Miller, who noted this viewpoint in her works on child abuse. Physical abuse refers to any hand-to-hand contact or use of another physical item on a child with the goal of inflicting pain, injury, suffering, or physical harm.
Street hawking is an example of child labor, which entails subjecting a kid to extended work hours in a hazardous and unhealthy environment with too much responsibility for their age. Child labor is a form of physical abuse. According to CAPTA (Khatri, 2004), child sexual abuse includes employing, using persuasion, inducing, enticing, or coercing any kid to engage in any sexually explicit action in order to create a visual portrayal of such conduct. It is rape, as well as statutory rape in situations involving caregivers or close family members, molestation, prostitution, or other types of sexual exploitation of minors, or incest with children. Sexual abuse is the most frequently unreported type of child maltreatment due to the secrecy that surrounds these cases assaulted sexually Children who feel guilty or ashamed often have emotional problems. Any form of abuse that is more emotionally based than physically based is considered psychological abuse. It may manifest as aggressive speech or as particular behaviors like unrelenting criticism, verbal abuse, and intimidation. Instead of the physical body, a child’s psyche is the victim of psychological/emotional abuse. Acts that have a significant negative impact on a child’s psychology include loud yelling, coarse language, a lack of focus, harsh criticism, disparaging remarks about a child’s personality, destruction of personal property, torturing or killing a pet, and inappropriate or excessive demands. Emotional abuse is defined by the National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information (2006) as parental or other caregiver actions or inactions that have caused or have the potential to create major behavioural, cognitive, emotional, or mental illnesses. Thus, any attitude, behavior, or inaction on the part of a caregiver that impedes a child’s mental health, social development, or feeling of self-worth can be considered emotional abuse. It is arguably the most frequent, cruelest, and devastating form of abuse, despite being the least understood. It undermines a child’s sense of self, leading them to believe they are unworthy, useless, and unable. A youngster suffers more when they are repeatedly humiliated, shamed, scared, or rejected than if they had been physically abused. As a result, most kids frequently withdraw into themselves, which causes sadness and a lack of focus in class. It should go without saying that a child’s social and cultural context can influence how well they grow and develop. The state won’t be able to control child abusers’ actions or behavior if the law doesn’t work. In recent years, Nigerian law has evolved to overcome some of the flaws that prevent the implementation of the ideals of equality and justice for all of the country’s residents. In addition, the law (Chapters II and IV of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria) offers some control mechanisms that support the realization of possibilities for all people as well as the inalienable or fundamental rights that guarantee a child’s life, growth, and development. the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, as well as the Children’s Rights and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, which looked to have put an end to the claim that they have no clearly defined rights, In Nigeria, there are defined rights. The Convention on the Rights of the Child was adopted in 1991. What is now required is the ratification of these foreign laws and their domestication as part of Nigerian law, without regard to Section 12(1) of Chapter II of the 1999 constitution, which states that “No treaty between the federation and any other country shall have the force of law except to the extent to which any such treaty has been enacted into law by the National Assembly.”
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Unfortunately, most parents and caregivers do not understand the distinction between child discipline and child abuse. Parents and caregivers involve their children in activities such as street hawking as a form of child discipline. In the long run, these activities end up molding and badly altering the child’s psyche as a result of the difficult experience that he/she was subjected to at such a young age while he/she is supposed to be in school for formal education. The child is also likely to come into contact with criminals while peddling things around the neighborhood, who would then introduce him/her into illegal activity. In traditional African society, child training was the full duty of the parents and community members, who had the authority to reprimand and correct the kid anytime they went wrong. The parents raised their child in a way that is appropriate and acceptable to society’s standards. Following the introduction of western education and nursery and pre-primary schools, parents tend to delegate the task of leading, directing, counseling, and role modeling of their children to school to do what parents should in addition to their usual school function. Parents are increasingly delegating responsibility for their children’s care to the school. Many young children who would have been at home at the age of two have been pushed to school. The responsibility thus became immense for teachers and school administration to handle, resulting in many students being neglected, scorned, and abused on a regular basis.
Child labor, child abuse, child marriage, child trafficking, neglect, and child prostitution are all prevalent in Nigerian society, particularly in the Abeokuta North Local Government Area, where this research is intended. Teenage pregnancies, youth restiveness and violence, cultism, young decadence, joblessness, arm bandits, molestations, and school dropouts are all consequences of such abuse. This scourge has infiltrated most Nigerian children’s lives. It is heartening to see that the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) has now been adopted in Nigeria. However, the National Assembly should take this and other international rules seriously, particularly those affecting the rights and fundamental freedoms of children. As a result, the challenge today is to properly enforce and monitor the application of these regulations as they affect the lives and rights of children in Nigeria. This also implies that all social rights in Nigeria should be made justified in order to empower the least privileged members of society. According to research in social studies and psychology, a child’s criminality can be attributed to a lack of resources such as possibilities for work and leisure, the capacity to generate a good and fair income for parents, access to good learning, and access to adequate food and pleasure. Other major factors that may contribute to a child’s criminality include a lack of decent housing and a clean environment, suffering from health inequalities, and living among people with questionable character and a questionable lifestyle, as well as living in a disadvantaged neighborhood or an overcrowded environment. In fact, these elements frequently interact to exacerbate some of society’s faults and challenges. As a result, where children experience multiple features of poverty and special inclusion, they become vulnerable to behaviors that allow for the commission of serious crimes. For example, children living in the slums and shanties of Abeokuta North Local Government’s Sabo region may have greater health problems than those living in a more nice and appealing neighborhood. Poverty and social exclusion are sometimes transmitted throughout a child’s lifetime, even to the point of passing it on to his descendants and over many generations, as in the case of leprosy and tuberculosis. In a nutshell, the economic condition of the family, parents or guidance, as well as the surroundings, has far-reaching consequences on the youth’s development and survival.
1.2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. How does child abuse cause crime?
2. Why are there still incidences of child abuse in our society?
3. What are the implications and effects of child abuse and neglect on our
4. Is there any link between abuse and socio-economic status of a child?
1. (a) Ho: There is no significant relationship between child abuse and the
increase in the
level of crime and criminal behavior in our society.
(b) H1: There is significant relationship between child abuse and the increase
in the level of crime and criminal behavior in our society.
2. (a) Ho: There is no significant relationship between child abuse and the high
poverty and low socio-economic status of people living in Abeokuta
North Local Government Area of Ogun State.
(b) H1: There is significant relationship between child abuse and the high level
and low socio-economic status of people living in Abeokuta North
Local Government Area of Ogun State.
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
In view of the research questions in 1.3, this research have hereby attempted to:
1. Explain and analyze how child abuse can cause crime.
2. Highlight how poverty and low socio-economic status have been responsible
for the increase incidence of child abuse and neglect in our society.
3. Analyse the effects and implications of child abuse on our society.
4. Increase the level of awareness of the crime of child abuse in our society.
5. Canvas for public orientation and sensitization to reinforce parenting skills.
6. Recommend to schools, a kind of programme to sensitize children on avoiding
potentially harmful scenarios.
7. Make recommendations to the government and other policy makers on how
the crime of child abuse can be abated.
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