CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR IN TRAVEL AND TOURISM IN NIGERIA
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1.1 Background of the study
The story of Nigeria’s tourism industry is one of unfulfilled potentials. According to Adeleke (2009) as cited by Honey and Gilpin (2009), Nigeria is tailor-made for tourism. Its over 370 ethnic groups give it a rich cultural heritage and it is blessed with natural wonders, unique wildlife and a very favorable climate. Yet very little effort has been undertaken to develop her tourism destinations. Tourism destination is the place of interest a tourist intends to visit for leisure and other purpose. Ernie and Wall (2002) classified tourism destination into two attraction/recreation and hospitality. Attraction/recreation refers to sites designed for sightseeing, photo taking, game playing, and relaxation to have fun. They include zoo, museum, monuments, beach and amusement part. Hospitality encompasses organizations, which provide guests with food, drinks, and leisure facilities including accommodation. They include hotels and resorts. Swarbook and Horner (2007) affirmed that tourism destinations offer services that are inseparable from the provider and their experiences and memories after consumption cannot easily be stored. Consumer behavior involves certain decisions, activities, ideas or experiences that satisfy consumer needs and wants (Solomon, 1996 Solomon, M. R. (1996). It is concerned with all activities directly involved in obtaining, consuming and disposing of products and services, including the decision processes that precede and follow these actions (Engel, Blackwell, & Miniard, 1995 Engel, J. F., Blackwell, R. D., & Miniard, R. W. (1995). According to Solomon (1996), consumer behavior is a study of the processes involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use, or dispose of products, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy needs and desires. The official definition of consumer behavior given by Belch (1998) is ‘the process and activities people engage in when searching for, selecting, purchasing, using, evaluating, and disposing of products and services so as to satisfy their needs and desires’. Behavior occurs either for the individual, or in the context of a group, or an organization. Consumer behavior is a highly important issue for all marketing activities which have the purpose to promote and sell tourism products. The tourism consumer behavior can be defined as the ensemble of its acts, attitudes and decisions regarding choosing, buying and consuming tourism products and services, and also its post-consuming reactions. The discovery of the consumer’s needs and decision processes is very important for the marketing activity because it allows the marketing manager to improve his own decision-making process, to forecast future behavior and to have a real and objective image of the consumer demand. Understanding consumer behavior is important for developing new tourism products and services because it offers a clearer view of what consumers are looking for and the manager can reflect them in the development process. Consumer behavior involves the use and disposal of products as well as the study of how they are purchased. Product use is often of great interest to the marketer, because this may influence how a product is best positioned or how we can encourage increased consumption. It is a fact that today’s Nigerians attitudes towards holiday making are very positive. Although travelers have a strong desire to travel, the cost, affordability and accessibility will need to be assessed to turn potential into actual demand (Glover, 2010). Therefore, further study needs to be carried out to investigate their travel behavior as suggested by Tsiotsu and Ratten (2010). Moreover, Aziz and Ariffin (2009) suggested that behaviouristic study is required to understand the travelers market as pleasure travel is expanding in Nigeria. They also remark that it is crucial to investigate how people make their travel decisions and what they enjoy during travelling. Travelling has become easier and more affordable than it was before. These changes are contributing to the age of travelers getting younger. Hence, it is not deniable that travelers are an increasingly important segment in both tourism businesses and studies. Despite an increasing interest in the market size of travelers, economic potential and their desire to travel, relatively little is known about their travel lifestyles and intentions to overseas travel. Those travelers who were risk averse in their personality were likely not only to use a wider range of information sources, but also to choose certain types of holiday and accommodation choices (Alvarez and Asugman, 2006). Thus, the personality trait was linked to both type of travel and information source usage. The motivations are likely to be different for people who are very concerned with being fashionable, or are preoccupied with their health, or live alone and want to make new friends, or enjoy partying. Therefore, this study aims to provide insights on consumer behavior in travel and tourism in Nigeria.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The understanding of consumers’ needs, preferences, and behavior has proven to lead organizations and destinations to provide appropriate supply components and benefits that suit different market segments. Consumer behavior studies in the field of travel and tourism have examined the relationship between a consumer’s personality type, values, and travel behavior. However, the researcher wants to look at the consumer behavior in travel and tourism in Nigeria. As noted by Holland (1985:4) “people search for environments that will allow them to exercise their skills and abilities, express their attitudes and values, and take on agreeable problems and roles.
- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study is to examine the consumer behavior in travel and tourism in Nigeria.
Specifically, the study intend to;
- Examine the behavior of consumers in travel and tourism in Nigeria
- Examine the difficulties of consumers in travel and tourism in Nigeria
- Ascertain the relationship between consumers and Nigeria tourism
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: there is no problem between consumer’s behavior in travel and tourism and Nigeria tourism
H1: there are problems between consumer’s behavior in travel and tourism and Nigeria tourism
H02: there is no significant relationship between consumer’s behavior in travel and tourism and Nigeria government
H2: there is significant relationship between consumer’s behavior in travel and tourism and Nigeria government
- SIGNIFANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of benefit to the federal ministry of culture and tourism travelers, lectures, tourists and students, the study will help to identify the problems face by consumers in travel and tourism in Nigeria. The study will also be of great benefit to the researchers who intends to embark on research on similar topics as it will serve as a guide.
- SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study covers the consumer behavior in travel and tourism in Nigeria. In the course of the study, the researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
The researcher attending lectures, doing assignment, preparing for semester exam and also writing project was the major challenge, thereby limit the study. The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher have to combine other academic activities also limit the study. The money to photocopy and download information from internet also contributes to the limitation of the study.
- DEFINITION OF TERMS
CONSUMER: A consumer is a person or organization that uses economic services or commodities. In economic systems consumer are utilities expressed in the decision to trade or not.
BEHAVIOUR: Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment
CONSUMERS BEHAVIOUR: Consumer behaviour is the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, use, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy their needs and wants.
TRAVEL: Travel is the movement of people between relatively distant geographical locations, and can involve travel by foot, bicycle, automobile, train, boat, bus, airplane.
TOURISM: Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours. Tourism may be international, or within the traveler’s country.
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