DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A SOLAR WATER PUMPING MACHINE
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INSTANT PROJECT MATERIAL DOWNLOAD
Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE
This project was on the design and construction of a solar water pumping machine as renewable energy application to solve water supply problem in Nigeria. The primary aim of this project is to design a water pumping system for irrigation that uses solar energy for its operation. Solar energy is obtained from conversion of solar radiation into electrical energy by means of either solar photovoltaic cell or solar concentrator. Photovoltaic cell converts solar energy into electrical energy by photovoltaic effect. Solar concentrator concentrates solar radiation by means of mirrors or reflectors. Solar energy has been utilized for generation of electricity more than 8 hours on an average day span. Solar water pump run on photovoltaic panels. Solar water pump is designed especially for remote location. It is emerging source for pupping, irrigation. Solar water pump is mainly depends on two parameters: Ground water potential and solar radiation during the day. Solar water pumping systems are a modern but field proven means of pumping water in locations where access to grid power is not available, or where the grid is not reliable. These systems use photovoltaic (PV) cells to convert sunlight into electricity to power DC pumps which can be used to pump groundwater or surface water. It is observed that discharge (Flow rate) is increased with intensity of solar radiation.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
- BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT
- OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
- PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
- APPLICATIONS OF THE PROJECT
- PROBLEM OF THE PROJECT
- PROJECT ORGANISATION
- OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT
- LITERATURE SURVEY AND BACKGROUND STUDY
- THE PROPOSED SOLUTION
- 2.3 PV SOLAR WATER PUMPING SYSTEMS: PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV)
- CONCEPT OF SOLAR POWERED SYSTEMS
- THEORICAL REVIEW OF SYSTEM COMPONENTS
- SOLAR WATER PUMPS
- SOLAR WATER PUMPING PRINCIPLES
- BASICS OF PROJECT
- SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM
- SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
- COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION
- SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION
- SPECIFICATION OF COMPONENTS
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
- FINAL DESIGN
Recently, there is an increase in the use of alternative energy sources to complement the global energy matrix. However, such sources of global renewable energy generation have impacts and constraints, imposing some limitations. These limits are important for the planning and design of sustainable energy policies, demanding specialized studies for obtaining good performances in the installation of systems, in order to avoid serious consequences. A reliable and clean water supply is an essential need but a large number of people currently lack this basic provision. A solar water pump is a socially and environmentally attractive technology to supply water. Especially if the need for water is in remote locations which are beyond the reach of power lines, solar power is often the economically preferred technology.
Solar energy is an important, clean, cheap, and abundantly available renewable energy. The sun radiates heat and light. The hydrogen atoms in core of sun’s core combine to form helium and generate energy in process called nuclear fusion. During nuclear fusion, the sun’s extremely high pressure and temperature cause hydrogen atoms to come apart and their nuclei to fuse or combine. Some matter is lost during nuclear fusion. The lost matter is emitted into space as radiant energy. Solar water pumps can supply water to locations which are beyond the reach of power lines. Commonly, such places relies on human or animal power or on diesel engines for their water supply (Omer, 2001). Solar water pumps can replace the current pump systems and result in both socio-economic benefits as well as climate related benefits. The water supplied by the solar water pump can be used to irrigate crops, water livestock or provide potable drinking water.
Application of solar energy mainy classified into two categories. 1. Solat thermal energy 2. Solar to electrical energy Most common way of harnessed solar energy is photovoltaic module. Solar modules consist of layers of materials like a sandwich. A solar cell is made from a thin layer of silicon. The light carries energy into the cell and the cell and the wires connected to the cell convert the light energy into another kind of energy say electric current. No electricity is stored in the cell, electricity is utilized in different ways. Solar PV technology is the most significant renewable energy technology particularly for remote and stand away consumers or users away from main electric grid. Solar PV array is a set of photovoltaic segments. The solar PV modules convert the incident solar light energy directly to electrical energy in D.C. (Direct Current) form. Each solar cell in module consist of two layer p-type and n-type (Dropped silicon) in contact to make a junction, which having electrical connection thorough bus bar. For the protection purpose layer of glass is placed.
A solar water pump system is essentially an electrical pump system in which the electricity is provided by one or several PhotoVoltaic (PV) panels. A typical solar powered pumping system consists of a solar panel array that powers an electric motor, which in turn powers a bore or surface pump. The water is often pumped from the ground or stream into a storage tank that provides a gravity feed, so energy storage is not needed for these systems.
There are two main types of solar water pump technologies: a) the centrifugal pump, which uses high speed rotation to suck water in through the middle of the pump. Most conventional Alternating Current (AC) pumps use such a centrifugal impeller. However, when operating at low power the performance of the pump drops dramatically. This makes centrifugal pumps less suitable for solar applications, since low power due to cloudy weather is to be expected; and b) the positive displacement pump, which usually uses a piston to transfer water (Short & Thompson, 2003). Many solar water pumps use the positive displacement pump, which brings water into a chamber and then forces it out using a piston or helical screw. These types generally pump slower than other types of pumps, but have good performance under low power conditions and can achieve high lift. Since PV is expensive and is an intermittent power supplier, solar pumps need to be as efficient as possible
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
The scarcity of electricity is forcing farmers to look at environmentally, low maintenance irrigation system. Solar water pump is one of the finest solution for irrigation. In spite of the fact that the fossil fuels (which are petroleum, coal, and natural gas) are still widely used at the modern day and are being produced by the planet, they are being spent by the humankind much faster than they are replaced by the natural resources. As a consequence, fossil fuels are regarded as being non-renewable at the current rate of consumption; for that reason, recent research indicated that the demand for renewable sources of energy is an issue of primary concern at the present moment. Today, the renewable sources of energy are tied with the solar energy and its primary and secondary impacts on the planet. These impacts include (solar radiation, the power of wind, the power of water, and certain types of florae, biomass, to be precise). Solar water pumping system is capable to run all types of electrical pump. Floating pump, submersible pump, centrifugal pump are most commonly used pump for solar water pumping. One of the most significant advantages of renewable sources of energy is their input in the reduction of environmental pollution and its possible elimination on a massive scale.
1.3 AIM OF THE PROJECT
The project aims to develop a cost-effective, operation-robust, low CO2 emissions and environmentally-friendly multi-function photovoltaic (PV) water pumping technology (PVWP), to be applied for ecological restoration and desertification prevention
1.3.1 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
1. To design a water pumping system for irrigation that uses solar energy for its operation.
2. To design a pumping system that minimizes human interventions.
3. To design a water supply system that makes irrigation more efficient.
1.3.2 PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT
The main purpose of our project is to supply steady water to consumer which can be utilized at affordable cost.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
Solar pumping system offers an alternate means to meet the electricity demand for irrigation and livestock watering. Under the circumstances of inadequate supply of electrical energy, the solar water pump can play a significant role. Among various renewable resources, solar energy has great deal for utilization in electricity generation. Therefore solar water pumping system has great prospect of utilization in this country. Battery and inverter would increase the stability of system
1.5 APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT
Possible applications for solar pumping systems include:
- Irrigation and agricultural systems: The most common application of solar water pumping is to provide irrigation water or water for livestock, by pumping from groundwater wells or from surface water bodies. A well designed solar powered pumping system can transform the availability of irrigation water and reduce the money spent on generator fuel by farmers in areas where grid power is not available or is unreliable.
- Remote habitations: Where people live a long way from reliable power supply, solar systems can be a good alternative to generator power supply. While the initial capital cost of a PV system may be greater than a generator, over the life of the system the low maintenance and zero fuel costs will make a solar PV system the cheaper option in the long term.
- Temporary mining camps or construction camps: Solar pumping systems can be a great way to provide water to mining sites and construction sites. When used in combination with temporary drinking water treatment systems, they can be used to supply drinking water for workers.
- Emergency water supply: In disaster relief and refugee camp situations, solar pumping systems combined with temporary drinking water treatment units can be an effective way of very quickly providing safe and clean drinking water to affected populations. Solar powered systems are relatively lightweight and compact and suitable for air transportation. Once in the field they are quick to assemble and require little specialist knowledge to install and commission.
- Dewatering systems: Dewatering systems normally require continuous pumping, 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. This means that solar power alone will not normally be adequate, and dewatering systems are normally powered by generators or from the grid. However, in hot and arid climates, such as the Middle East, parts of Africa and Australia, solar PV systems may have a role to play in reducing energy costs by displacing part of the conventional power sources used to run dewatering pumps.
- Grid tie systems: If the required pumping is intermittent during daylight hours, or where the pumping demand is very low, the power output from the PV array may exceed the energy required to run the pumps. In these cases it is possible to connect the PV system both to the pump and to other electrical demands, either other on-site power demands of the pump operator, or to export power to the utility grid if that exists near the site. These systems are known as “grid tie” systems and can provide a source of income for the pump operator, by getting payments from the utility company for power exported.
1.6 PROBLEM OF THE PROJECT
- Potentially high capital costs
- Electrical output will be limited by daylight hours and bad weather. Water storage and battery backup may be required.
1.7 PROJECT WORK ORGANISATION
The various stages involved in the development of this project have been properly put into five chapters to enhance comprehensive and concise reading. In this project thesis, the project is organized sequentially as follows:
Chapter one of this work is on the introduction to the study. In this chapter, the background, significance, aim, objective, purpose, limitation and problem of the study were discussed.
Chapter two is on literature review of this study. In this chapter, all the literature pertaining to this work was reviewed.
Chapter three is on design methodology. In this chapter all the method involved during the design and construction were discussed.
Chapter four is on testing analysis. All testing that result accurate functionality was analyzed.
Chapter five is on conclusion, recommendation and references.
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