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| Format: Ms Word | 1-5 Chapters | Table of Content|


Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE

Amount: ₦3,000.00


Durability is used for quantifying the quality of briquette as the ratio of the unbroken weight to initial weight of briquette. This equally measure the durability of briquette under impact load during transportation and handling. A durability machine was developed and has dimension of 300mm×(25×25×3mm)×450mm.It was powered by electric motor of size 0.93hp.The results show that briquette formed from moringa stover has durability of 50%,63.4% and 79% from treatment T1 (100g ) , T2 ( 200g ) And T3(300g) respectively with corresponding unit density of (0.126kg/m3,0.130kg/m3 and 0.194kg/m3).Castor stover  has durability of 63.4%,73.3% and79,7%  from treatment T1 ( 100g ) , T2 (200g ) And T3(300g) respectively and unit density of 0.162kg/m3,0.167kg/m3and 0.193kg/m3).sorghum stover has durability of (73.3%,79% and 87.4%) from treatment T1(100g), T2(200g) And T3(300g) and  unit density of 0.316kg/m3,0.273kg/m3and 0.262kg/m3.the  testing duration 3min and rotational speed 40rpm. . The durability test shows that sorghum stover has the highest durability compares to moringa stover and castor stover


Tittle page                                                                                                                  i

Certification                                                                                                               ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv

Abstract                                                                                                                      v

Table of Content                                                                                                         vi

List of Figure                                                                                                              vii

List of Table                                                                                                               viii

CHAPTER ONE:  INTRODUCTION                                                                          

1.1  Preambles                                                                                                                        1

1.2  Statement of the Problems                                                                                  2

1.3  Durability Characteristics                                                                                   2

1.4  Objectives                                                                                                            3

1.5  Justification                                                                                                         3


2.1  Definition of Durability                                                                                      4

2.2  Durability measurement and equipment                                                             4

2.2.1  Tumbler tester                                                                                                  4

2.2.2   Dural tester                                                                                                      6

2.2.3   Lingo tester                                                                                                     7

2.2.4   Holmen tester                                                                                                  8

2.2.5   Drop tester                                                                                                       9

2.3      Durability tester                                                                                              10

2.3.1   Briquette durability test                                                                                  11

2.3.2   Pellet durability test                                                                                        11

2.3.3   Durability test of cubes                                                                                   12

2.4      Factors affecting durability of briquette                                                        13

2.4.1   Effects of feed constituent on durability of briquette                                                13

2.4.2   Effect on moisture content on durability of briquette                                                14

2.4.3   Effect of particle size on durability of briquette                                            15

2.4.4   Effect of steam conditioning/preheating on durability of briquette              15

2.4.5   Effects of binders/addictives on durability of briquette                                15


3.1     Material                                                                                                            16

3.2     Description of durability testing machine                                                       16

3.3     Component part of the machine                                                                       16

3.3.1   Frame                                                                                                               16

3.3.2   Durability box                                                                                                 17

3.3.3   Pulley and belt                                                                                                 17

3.3.4   Bearing                                                                                                            17

3.3.5   Shaft                                                                                                                17

3.3.6   Key                                                                                                                  17

3.3.7   Electric motor                                                                                                  18

3.4      Design consideration                                                                                       18

3.4.1   Portability                                                                                                        18

3.4.2   Cost of production                                                                                           18

3.4.3   Area/volume                                                                                                    18

3.5      Assembly of the construction                                                                         19

3.6      Design calculation                                                                                           19

3.6.1   Determination of power transmitted shaft                                                      19

3.6.2   Pulley design                                                                                                   20

3.6.3   Belt design                                                                                                       21

3.7    Performance evaluation                                                                                    22

3.7.1  Experimental design                                                                                         22

3.7.2   Experimental instrument                                                                                 22

3.7.3   Experimental material                                                                                     22

3.7.4   Experimental procedure                                                                                  23


4.1    Result                                                                                                                 26

4.1.1 Durability and unit density of moringa ground                                                            26

4.1.2  Durability and unit density of castor ground                                                   27

4.1.3  Durability and unit density of sorghum ground                                              28

4.2    Discussion                                                                                                         29


5.1   Conclusion                                                                                                          35

5.2   Recommendation                                                                                                36

 Reference                                                                                                                   37

Appendix                                                                                                                    39


Figure 2.1  Holmen pellet tester                                                                                9

Figure 4.1  Durability line for moringa briquette                                                                  33

Figure 4.1.1 Unit density of moringa briquette                                                         33

Figure 4.2  Durability line for castor briquette                                                         35

Figure 4.2.1 Unit density of castor briquette                                                             35

Figure 4.3  Durability line for sorghum briquette                                                                 37

Figure 4.3.1 Unit density of sorghum briquette                                                        37

                                                                     LIST OF TABLE

Table 3.1 Cost Analysis                                                                                             25

Table 4.1.1 Durability of moringa briquette produced from different treatment of moringa ground.                                                                                                                        26

Table 4.1.2 Durability of castor briquette produced from different treatment of castor ground.                                                                                                                        27

Table 4.1.3 Durability of sorghum briquette produced from different treatment of sorghum ground.                                                                                                                        28


Plate 1 Tumbler tester for durability testing machine                                               6

Plate 2 Dural tester for durability testing machine                                                   7

Plate 3 Dural tester for durability testing machine                                                   7

Plate 4 Durability testing machine                                                                            24



  1. Preamble

Durability is the assurance or probability that an equipment, machine or material will have a relative long continuous useful life, without requiring an inordinate degree of maintenance. It is the ability to undergo permanent deformation without cracking or fracturing.  

Durability testing is performance testing equipment used to determine the characteristics of a system under various load condition over time. This testing help us to identify the stability of a transaction response times over the duration of the test.

The importance of durability is to know the shell life of an equipment or agricultural material like the other dimension of quality, it is easier to plan durability into a product design and manufacture process that it is alter the finished product. There are many ways to increase a product durability, you can increase it’s by using durable part an modules in your product. Another way to increase durability is to use redundancy redundant part can vastly increase durability, however it will increase the product weight and cost as well. And finally another way to increase durability is to design a product or equipment for the most demanding user, that way to the average user the products appear to be very durable (Tomas foster 2001).

      When designing a product and its durability, you should design with your product base, user base, manufacturing base and value base in mind. Difference product bases require different levels of durability. The difference can be seen in an equipment, vehincles e.g (the two types of ford vehicles, the crown Victoria which is a law enforcement vehicle and the focus which is an economic car both vehicles are design from the ground up to be different types of cars with the different levels of durability.  Another example is a non durable product is the common light bulb. Light bulbs are design to last about a year or less and the slightest power surge or vibration can break their filament , rendering them useless. It would be nearly impossible to increase the durability of finished light bulb. However if you design light bulb for extended life and use a quality manufacturing process, you can drastically increase the durability of the light bulb (Hall, 2001).

1.2   Statement of The Problem

Agricultural material during processing of briquette or pellet is one of the most environment problems in developing countries. The unavailability of equipment to test the durability of briquette/pellets produce from biomass cannot be over emphasized, hence there is need to develop a machine to solve these challenges.

     However the decreasing life span of  agricultural material draw the attention to the need to consider an equipment which will determine the span of a material.

  1. Durability Characteristics

Durability characteristics are stated below:

  1. Dust resistance.
  2. It will free from fire resistance.
  3. Radiation hardening.
  4. Thermal resistance.
  5. Rot proofing.
  6. Rust proofing.
  7. Toughness.
  8. Water proofing.
  9. Ability to withstand wear, pressure or damage.
  1. Objectives of the Project

               The main aim of this project is to develop a machine that can be used to determine the durability of briquette produced from agricultural materials.

The objectives of this project work are to;

  1.  Design and fabrication of durability testing machine

   ii        carry out performance evaluation of durability testing machine

1.5    Justification

The development and performance evaluation of a durability testing machine will go a long way

  1. to assist producer of briquette to determine the ability of the briquette produce to impact load
  2.  to enhance the increase in production of biomass.
  3. to generate revenue from researches who engage the equipment for determination of the durability of briquette.