DEVELOPMENT BANKING IN NIGERIA
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1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Development banking in Nigeria was established, as a result of strong needs to close the gap created by the inability of the operating banks in Nigeria such as commercial banks, central bank and merchant banks to provide the needed funds to finance some special sectors of the economy such sectors which must be financed mainly with long-term and sometimes with medium term funds, need finance from specialized banks such as development banks.
These banks were established for the purpose of providing medium and long term loans for capital projects in Agriculture commerce, industry and other essential projects that are necessary for economic development of the country, such loans are usually provided from the banks internally resources. For projects that require huge capital resources than it can provided alone, development bank usually mobilizes other financial institutions to raise the required loan for the establishment that requires it. Apart from providing medium and long term loans for capital projects in specific areas as already mentioned, development banks render ancillary services like proving technical advice on new and existing projects to their customers, engaging in promotional activities to stimulate interests among their customers on new prefects which the banks consider necessary and profitable.
The commercial banks in operation provided short term funds which was as a result of the nature of funds available to them. Occasionally the provided medium term funds and long-term basis. Development banks perform this function by providing long-term loans for capital projects in specific areas. In Nigeria, we have the Nigerian industrial development bank (NIDB), the Nigerian bank for commerce and industry (NBCI) and the Nigerian Agricultural co-operative bank (NACB) now known as Nigerian Agricultural, co-operative and rural development bank limited (NACRD). These banks are owned by the federal government.
Following the reconstruction of the Nigeria industrial development bank limited, NIDB in 2001, which incorporated the mandate of the Nigerian bank of commerce and industry (NBCI), the (NBCI) apperar to have lost its identify. Today you may not discuss the NBCI without seeing it as a part of NIDB. Nevertheless, since NBCI, is still in existence having not be swallowed by the NIDB, The NBCI was established through decree 22 of 5th may 1973 by the federal government of Nigeria. The bank which is believe to be a child of circumstance because it came up after the Nigeria civil was when the indigestion decree was set up. It started its operation on 4th October, 1974.
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