| Format: Ms Word | 1-5 Chapters | Table of Content|
INSTANT PROJECT MATERIAL DOWNLOAD
Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE
This study focused on the development of motivational training programme for enhancing the entry of almajiris into cotton production occupations in Northwest, Nigeria. Six research questions guided the study and five hypotheses were formulated and tested at the probability of 0.05 level of significance. Research and Development (R & D) design was used for the study. The population for the study was 2,717 comprising 1,528 Agricultural Extension Agents; 1,138 Teachers of Agricultural Science; 24 Cotton Processors and 27 Marketers. The sample for the study was 580 consisting 301 Agricultural Extension Agents, 228 Teachers of Agricultural Science and 51 Cotton Processors and Marketers. The population of Agricultural Extension Agents and Teachers of Agricultural Science were sampled using 20% proportionate stratified random sampling technique while the entire population of Cotton Processors and Marketers were adopted because of their small size. The questionnaire which is divided into five sections (growing, processing, and marketing of cotton, motivational strategies and training procedures) were developed from the review of the literature and function of industry and used for data collection from the respondents and were face-validated by five experts. Cronbach Alpha reliability method was used to determine the internal consistency of the instruments. Reliability coefficients of 0.79, 0.71, 0.73, 0.82 and 0.89 were obtained for the five sections of questionnaire respectively. Agricultural Extension Agents and Teachers of Agricultural Science responded to 529 copies of the questionnaire on growing of cotton, motivational strategies and training procedure, while Cotton Processors and Marketers responded to 51 copies of the questionnaire on processing and marketing of cotton. The questionnaires were administered to the respondents by the researcher with the help of seven research assistants. A total of 571 copies were retrieved out of the 580 copies administered with return rate of 98.4%. The data collected were analyzed using weighted mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions while t-test statistics was used to test the hypotheses at the probability level of 0.05 and at relevant degrees of freedom. It was found out that the almajiris required 182 competencies in growing cotton, 57 competencies in processing cotton and 27 competencies in marketing of cotton for entry into any of the occupation in cotton production enterprises. It was also found out that 34 motivational strategies were required for motivating the almajiris for entry into training in cotton production occupations. The trainers also required 10 motivational strategies for enhancing their performance in training the almajiris in cotton production enterprises. The study further revealed that 28 competencies were identified as training procedure to be utilized by trainers for empowering the almajiris with skills at the skill acquisition centres. The findings from the test of hypotheses revealed that there was no significant difference in the mean ratings of the responses of Agricultural Extension Agents and Teachers of Agricultural Science on 182 competencies on growing of cotton, 44 motivational strategies required for motivating the almajiris as well as trainers in cotton production occupations. It was also found out that there was no significant difference in the mean rating of the responses of Cotton Processors and Marketers on 52 out of 57 competency items required by almajiris for entry into cotton processing enterprise. Also, there was no significant difference in the mean ratings of the responses of Cotton Processors and Marketers on 27 competencies in marketing for enhancing the entry of almajiris into marketing of cotton. The identified competencies in cotton production occupation and motivational strategies for the training of almajiris in cotton production were used to package the motivational training programme for the training of almajiris in cotton production. It was recommended that the identified motivational strategies with competencies in cotton production should be utilized by the state government in Northwest, Nigeria for training the almajiris in cotton production for entering into occupation in cotton enterprises.
Background of the Study
Cotton (Gossypium spp) is a fibre crop grown in large scale in the Northwest zone of Nigeria. United Nation Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) Report (2006) stated that cultivated cotton originated from Asia and Pre-Columbian America (particularly in Peru and Guatemala) and spread to Mexico from these regions. James (2008) explained that cotton is a variety of fibre crop of the genus Gossypium belonging to the malvacae family which comprises of approximately 1,500 species including the baobab trees. International Trade Centre (ITC) Report (2010) stated that four types of cotton are grown on a commercial scale in the world. They include Gossypium hirsutum, Gossypium barbadense, Gossypium arboretum and Gossypium herbaceum. The report explained that Gossypium hirsutum accounts for 90% of the world cotton production, Gossypium barbadense, 8% while Gossypium arboretum and Gossypium herbaceum account for the remaining 2%.Gossypium hirsutum is the species mostly cultivated in Northwest,Nigeria because of its high yield and adaptability to the soil and climatic conditions of the area. Saro (2004) stated that cotton requires an arid climate with adequate water supply during the early stage of growth; it requires a well-drained and fertile sandy loam soil with a pH value of 6 to 8.00 for good growth.
Raw Material Research and Development Council (RMRDC) Report (2004) explained that cotton grows well on moderately fertile clay and sandy loam soils with a pH of 5.2-8.00. UNCTAD Report (2006) stated that Gossypium hirsutum can grow up to 10 metres high in the wild, but has been domesticated to range between 1.2 to 1.5m tall and 91.4cm to 121.9cm wide at maturity. Siebert (1996) explained that a leave of Gossypium hirsutum looks like a heart with pointed lobes, medium to deep green in colour. The author explained further that the leaves are hairy and are arranged in alternating patterns on the stem and branches which are short and terminate with flowers that eventually yield the fruits that contain the seeds and fibre. Stephen (2004) observed that the flower of Gossypium hirsutum is hibiscus-like with five petals and a creamy white or yellow colour. James (2008) explained that cotton is usually pollinated by insect and the female pistil with three to four ovaries inside ripens to form a green capsule or ball. The capsule upon drying will split open to reveal the seed and white fibre. Sabo, Daniel and Adeniji (2009) explained that cotton plant is mainly cultivated for its seed and the fibre. The seeds are processed into vegetable oil used for human consumption. The seed by-product is used for feeding livestock and fish. It is also used as fertilizer for improving soil nutrient. Stephen (2004) added that the stalks and leaves of the cotton plants are ploughed under to enrich the soil; the short hair on the seed coat provides cellulose for making plastics. The lint is incorporated into wood pulp for making high quality paper product. Uguru (1996) stated that cotton fibres are used in the textile industries for making clothing materials and for stuffing purpose, in pads, cushions, pillows, mattresses and as cleaning materials for human use. Due to the importance of cotton crop, many individuals in the Northwest zone engage in its production.
Production according to Jhington in Uko (2003) is the combination of various input resources in order to create a desired output. Iwena (2008) explained production as all economic activities which result in the creation of goods and services. Cotton production in the context of this study is the combination of various input resources (both human and materials) towards enhancing the entry of almajiris into any of the enterprise for increase cotton production. Resource inputs into cotton production include such materials as land, water, tools, agro-chemicals, machines, planting materials, fertilizers and so on, the human resource inputs which include skills possessed by persons in the youth category and other hired labour and services to enhance or increase cotton output for human use. Siebert (1996) categorized activities in cotton production to include growing, processing and marketing of cotton. For successful Cotton production, some competencies need to be possessed by the individuals involved in the production process.
Competency according to Olaitan and Ali (1997) is described as the knowledge, skills, attitude and judgment generally required for the successful performance of a task. Tom (2004) explained competency as a combination of skills, knowledge and attitude that enable an individual to perform a job to the standard required. Competency deals with what is expected in the work place with emphasis on performing the actual job. To be competent, according to Olaitan (2003), means that the individual has acquired the knowledge, skills, attitude and judgment which he requires in order to perform successfully at a specified proficiency level in a given work. Competency in this study is a well-developed ability of almajiris (youths) in performing a task in any given job such as in cotton production enterprises making use of required resource inputs.
Youth according to United Nation General Assembly report (1995) are young people of 15-24 years bracket. This age range may go up to 30 years in developing countries like Nigeria. The National Youth Development Policy (2001) defined youths as people aged 18-35. The youth population according to the 2006 census is almost a hundred million. This means that they constitute more than two thirds of the country’s population of 140 million. They are the backbone of the development of the country. Indeed if Nigeria is to be sustained as a viable entity, there must be a very good plan to tap the energy and resourcefulness of the youth population to fast track economic development. Youths with reference to this study are the almajiris who attend Quranic Schools and engage in street begging. The almajiris are made to develop to adolescent or adult under feudal masters without any occupation except running errand for the feudal masters. These individuals have no interractions what so ever with Teachers of Agriculture in the regular school system. The teacher of agricultural science is an individual who is trained in pedagogical and technical aspects of agriculture and certified to teach agricultural science in schools and colleges. He teaches cotton production to students in regular schoosl other than the almajiris. Therefore, he is knowledgeable about skills in cotton production enterprise. Almajiris according to Adetoro (2010), refers to any person that moves on the streets for alms begging, sometimes in groups, around age 7 to 15 under the command of a mallam (teacher) of an informal Quranic Schools. The author stated that out of about eight million destitute in Nigeria, seven million of them are almajiris living in Northern Nigeria. The author further emphasized that the almajiris are in three categories, thus:
- The Kolo (Infants-age 5-15 years) who engage in streets begging.
- The Titibiri (Adolescents age 16-21 years)who always lead the kolo in the streets begging.
iii. The Gardi (Adolescents age 22 and above) who engage in intensive and laborious services for their feudal masters.
The concern of this study is the almajiris in group two and three, that is, the Titibiri and the Gardi who are 15 years and above serving feudal masters. These groups of almajiris could be motivated and trained through the development of a training programme in cotton production enterprises which is a triving agricultural occupation in Northwestern Nigeria.
Development according to Quirk (1995) is the act of making something more organized. Gyankosh (2010) viewed development as the process of producing something new or more advanced. Development in the context of this study involved identifying and writing out motivational strategies with competencies in the areas of growing, processing and marketing of cotton which were packaged for training of the almajiris in any of the cotton production enterprise.
Training according to Gordon (1992) is a planned and systematic modification of behavior through learning events, activities and programme which results in the participant achieving the level of knowledge, skills and abilities to carry out their work effectively. Onuka (2008) viewed training as a skill acquisition process through which almajiris are taught new knowledge and skills and how to apply them. The author stated further that the objectives of training almajiris in occupations is to assist them in acquiring relevant competencies in all aspect of any production activities so as to increase their production capacity. Training in the context of this study is the provision of relevant knowledge and skills in cotton production to the almajiris through practical teaching to enhance their entry into cotton production enterprises. Any training package in an occupation or job opportunities according to Onuka (2008) is better organized into a programme for effective delivery. Programme is viewed by Sincliar (1999) as a series of action or activities that are planned, organized and to be carried out sequentially during training. Olaitan and Ndomi in Asogwa (2010) referred to programme as a planned list of instruction to be executed or carried out in a logical manner during learning or training. Programme with reference to this study is a series of planned activities in cotton production in the area of growing, processing and marketing with motivational strategies which are packaged for training of the almajiris in the Northwest zone to enhance their entry into occupation in cotton production enterprises for increased cotton yield.
Enhancing according to Yerkes (1994) refers to a means of intensifying or raising something to a higher degree. Brainy-Quotes (2011) described enhancement as a means of raising or adding to the strength, worth, value or other desirable quality of something. With reference to this study, enhancement means increasing the level of competencies acquired by the almajiris in order to improve their participation in any of the cotton production enterprise.
Enterprise, according to Myfuture (2012), is an activity or a project that produces services or products for human benefit. Akrani (2011) stated that enterprise is the ability to turn an idea into a successful business. The author explained that enterprise is all about having the competence to succeed in a highly competitive and often challenging environment. In this study, enterprise means the ability of the almajiris to apply the knowledge, skills and attitude acquired through training in cotton production to establish themselves in cotton production enterprises such as growing, processing and marketing for sustainable and independent living.
Growing of cotton involves farmers in producing the cotton; processing involves processors in separating the cottonseed into seed and lint, while marketing involves a marketer who distributes the various products to users. Also, processor in the cotton industries is involved in converting cotton lint into textile and fabrics. Both processor and marketer are knowledgeable about the skills in cotton processing and marketing enterprise.
Cotton production in the area of the study has been in the hands of aging farmers who are using human labour and indigenous technologies to produce low level quantity of cotton.These farmer’s atime received some guidance from the Agicultural Extension Agents which enable them to produce the little cotton fibre still put for sale in the market. Agricultural Extension Agent as stated by Onuoha and Nnadi (2004) is one that is professionally trained to extend improve farming practices to farmers for their benefit. Agricultural Extension Agent in the view of Kristin (2009) is one who extend research based knowledge in agricultural practices to farmers in order to improve their practices and economic benefit.It is also the individual who take the farmers problems from his farm to research institute for solutions.In the context of this study,agricultural extension agent is an individual who extend informations to the local farmers on cotton production and carry their problems to the research institute through the approval of Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) in their respective states. They are very familiar with the problems of scarcity of cotton fibre to the textile industries originating from the small quantity produced by the local farmers. Abba (2011) reported that leading exporters of cotton lint like Olam Nigeria Ltd and The West Africa Cotton Company (WACOT) and many others have for the last 14-15 years either been operating at a loss or very marginal profit as a result of the ailing condition of cotton production. If the almajiris are exposed to training with sufficient motivation in any of the enterprises, they are likely to take up job in cotton production industries for sustainable living.
Motivation according to Hackenbury and Hackenbury in Nnachi (2009) refers to forces acting on or within an individual to cause, initiate or direct behaviours. The author explained that motivation is a prime factor in human success on a job and it is by means of motivation that an action is taken to reach a goal. Owuamunam and Owuamunam (2002) viewed motivation as an individuals urge, desire, tendency, or striving to achieve a goal or fulfill certain needs. In the opinion of Colman (2003), motivation is a driving force or forces responsible for initiation, persistence, direction and vigour of goal directed behaviours. The author observed that motivation is the key to success and a driving force by which humans achieve their goals in an occupation. Motivation in the context of this study is a set of one or more rewards or reinforcements packaged to activate or improve the behavior and mindsets of the matured almajiris above their present status in order to entice them into taking up occupations in the cotton industry.
Occupation in the opinion of Falex (2003) is a broad term that encompasses employment sectors or the categories of job which an individual is undertaking to earn a living. Anonymous (2012) stated that occupation includes one’s vocation or job or something that one undertakes to provide one’s livelihood regularly. The almajiris can take up employment in cotton industry to make a worthwhile living. Industry according to Akrani (2011) is a business activity which is related to raising, producing, processing or manufacturing of products. It is the branch of economic activity concerned with the use of raw materials in manufacturing goods whether finished products or semi-products (products that go into other products). The almajiris could be employed in cotton industry as a means of increasing cotton production for improved industrial activities. In order to achieve the purpose of cotton production among the almajiris in the area of the study through motivation, certain strategy must be adopted.
Strategy according to Michael (1996) is a deliberate attempt of choosing a different set of activities to deliver a unique value. Encarta (2009) described strategy as a carefully devised plan of action to achieve a goal. Falex (2009) explained that strategy is actions resulting from intended plan to accomplish a specified goal. Motivational strategy in this study is certain actions that can attract almajiris away from their feudal masters into jobs in cotton production. Such actions include re-enforcements through media campaign and textile agencies that could persuade almajiris to enter into cotton production as an alternative to feudal masters’ benefits. Such benefits in the area of the study include feeding, shelter, and clothing in a short time without brief case. The feudal masters are those individuals who voluntarily take the responsibilities and spend some of their material resources in caring for the unemployed adult almajiris and other youths. These enable them to involve the almajiris in any activity that are of interest to the security, image and economic viability of the feudal system. In this study, the motivational strategies are those that could provide the almajiris and the environment with long term benefits such as: independent living with equitable income from the industries, independent decision making by the almajiris rather than being coarse into errands that support or protect the mission of the feudal masters, sustainable income over life time, peaceful co-existence with neighbours and members of his community and the nation, positive participation in the nation’s growth and development and opportunity to raise a family and independently sustain its members.
In the area of the study, there are many matured almajiris who attend Qura’nic or the almajiris system of education where they acquired Islamic knowledge as a means for sustaining their life but were not trained in any skills for employment. These almajiris remained unemployed and have developed to matured individuals at the mercy of their feudal masters who engage their services in return for marginal livelihood. They are very common in large cities and towns in the area of the study such as Kano, Kaduna, Katsina, Daura, Sokoto, Kebbi, Gusau and, Dutse. They at times sit down in groups responding to information from their feudal masters. They are given mass feeding and supplied with little clothing materials without brief case. They have strong belief in their religion and instruction from their feudal masters, they have no other job rather than what their feudal masters instructed them to do. These feudal masters have no specific interest in training the almajiris for job that can benefit or settle them individually but rather for errands that they can benefit from through their preaching. The almajiris take the preaching of their feudal masters seriously and grow with it in a society that requires individuals to make contribution to her economic growth and development.
The contribution of these almajiris appears to be contrary to the needs of a growing and developing society like Nigeria economically. Therefore, to help the almajiris realize and accept an alternative empowerment programme to their present activities, they require motivation and training in relevant occupations within their environment one of which is cotton production.
Statement of the Problem
Cotton which is a source of raw materials to the textile industries is a major crop grown in the Northwest, Nigeria. It is vital to the economy of the nation having contributed enormously to the government revenue through taxes and export. In addition, the industry provides textile goods such as clothing, cushion, pads, and papers among others for the Nigerian markets. Federal Office of Statistics (FOS, 2004) reported that the total annual cotton consumption in Nigeria was 80,000MT cotton lint in 2003 while production in the year was 32,000 MT cotton lint which is less than half of the total cotton demand. This represents a short fall of total cotton demanded in the year 2003 by 60%.
The continuous decline arose because cotton production activities have been in the hands of the aging farmers who make use of human labour and indigenous technologies. These methods usually result in the production of low level quantity of cotton to the industry. This situation made the textile industries to source for raw materials outside the country at high cost which led to increase in the cost of locally produced textile materials, reduced the growth rate of textile related small scale industries such as ginneries, spinners and weavers in the study area.Some of these industries are closing down due to unavailability of locally produced raw materials for them to keep on rendering supportive services for the textile factories.
The nation is interested in supporting the sustenance of local industries especially cotton production industry, but farmers are weak in strength and could not sustain the interest of the government. Therefore there is need to look for alternative that could sustain the interest of the government and that of the textile industries.There are many young jobless youth and almajiris in the study area who could benefit from the government initiatives of boosting cotton production and the economy. If sufficient motivation is included in the government initiatives to the benefit of the almajiris, they could take up jobs in the cotton industry.
The almajiris are individuals who passed through Quranic education or dropped out of schools or were unable to acquire secondary education; they have grown to adulthood without any specific skills in an occupation or entrerprise except to serve the feudal masters for mere handout such as feeding, clothing, and running some errand that are of interest to their feudal masters. There is evidence from the experience of people in society that they are youths of no immediate identity or location. These individuals are viewed not to have made any positive contribution to the economy of the nation or development of the community where they reside. If these almajiris are motivated above what they are obtaining from their feudal masters without any infringement on their religious faith, it might help to provide them a change in behaviour to accept training in modern production of cotton using technology. This could lead to large scale production of cotton fibre to meet the demand of the ailing textile mills in the country and at the same time providing independent livelihood to these unemployed almajiris. To do this, a training programme on cotton production for the almajiris needs to be developed for their empowerment.
Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of this study was to develop motivational training programme for enhancing the entry of almajiris into cotton production occupation in Northwest, Nigeria. Specifically, the study sought to identify:
- Competencies required by almajiris for entry into occupation in growing of cotton.
- Competencies required by almajiris for entry into occupation in processing of cotton
- Competencies required by almajiris for entry into occupation in marketing of cotton.
- Motivational strategies required for enhancing the entry and sustainability of almajiris into occupations in cotton production.
- Motivational strategies required by trainers for enhancing their performance in training the almajiris in cotton production occupations.
- Training procedure that could be utilized by trainers for empowering the almajiris with skills in cotton production at the skill acquisition centre. And
- Develop the identified motivational strategies with competencies in growing, processing and marketing of cotton into programme for training the almajiris for employment in any cotton production enterprise.
- Validate the developed programmes in cotton production enterprises in the area of growing, processing and marketing of cotton.
Significance of the Study
The theoretical significance of the study revalidates the theory of the study which includes theories of motivation, occupation and training. The theory of motivation suggest that for almajiris to enter and participate in training for occupations in cotton industry,they needs to be motivated before,during and after training as a means for disengaging the almajiris from their feudal masters. The theory of occupation provided the skill element, value and knowledge which enhance the entry of almajiris into any of the cotton enterprises. In addition, theory of training for skill acquisition ensures gradual process that involved being embodied in different ways and developing skills that will make it possible for trainees to deal with the world of work effectively. The findings of this study on development of motivational training programme for enhancing the entry of almajiris into cotton production occupations has further validated the significance of the three theories on which the study was theoretically anchored.
This study is also of benefits to the almajiris and other youths, cotton farmers, government/non-governmental organization, textile mills, researchers, teachers of agricultural science and agricultural extension agents in the Northwest Nigeria.
The study provided information on development of motivational training programme for enhancing the entry of almajiris into cotton production occupations. This information will help the unemployed almajiris to undergo competency training programme with motivation which may be organized by the government/non-governmental organization (NGO’s), textile companies among others to equip them with relevant knowledge and skills for enhancing the entry of almajiris into any of the cotton production enterprise for increased yield and as a means of earning their livelihood.
The study provided information on development of motivational training programme for enhancing the entry of almajiris into cotton production occupations to the government. The government can direct the skill acquisition centres or youth’s empowerment centres to integrate the identified motivational strategies with competencies in cotton production for re-training of other youths and cotton farmers towards enhancing their entry in cotton production occupations on continuous basis.
The study provided information on development of motivational training programme for enhancing the entry of almajiris into cotton production occupations to the textile mills. The textile mills can assist in mobilizing and providing the unemployed almajiris with motivation and training to enable them take up employment in textile mills and other servicing factories such as ginneries, for them to live an independent and sustainable life in future.
The study provided Agricultural Extension Agents with information on developed motivational training programme for enhancing the entry of almajiris into cotton production occupations. The information can be transmitted by them to research centers or used by them for participating in the improvement of the livelihood of the almajiris through training for development of appropriate programme for training farmers in cotton production enterprises. The information’s provided by the study could also guide future researchers and teachers of agricultural science in embarking on similar studies where appropriate and using it for teaching agricultural science students in colleges to enhance their skills in cotton production occupations.
The following research questions guided the study:
1 What are the competencies required by almajiris for entering into occupation in growing of cotton?
2 What are the competencies required by almajiris for entering into occupation in processing of cotton?
3 What are the competencies required by almajiris for entering into occupation in marketing of cotton?
4 What are the motivational strategies required for enhancing the entry and sustainability of almajiris into occupations in cotton production?
5 What are the motivational strategies required by trainers for enhancing their performance in training the almajiris in cotton production occupations at skill acquisition centre?
6 What is the procedure that could be utilized by trainers for empowering the almajiris with skills in cotton production occupations at the skill acquisition centre?
The following null hypotheses were tested by the study at the probability of 0.05 level of significance.
Ho1: There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of the responses of Agricultural Extension Agent and Teachers of Agricultural Science on competencies required for enhancing the entry of almajiris into occupation in growing of cotton.
Ho2: There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of the responses of Cotton Processors and Marketers on competencies required for enhancing the entry of almajiris into occupation in processing of cotton.
HO3: There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of the responses of Cotton Processors and Marketers on competencies required for enhancing the entry of almajiris into occupation in marketing of cotton
Ho4: There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of the responses of Agricultural Extension Agents and Teachers of Agricultural Science on motivational strategies required for enhancing the entry and sustainability of almajiris into occupations in cotton production.
Ho5: There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of the responses of Agricultural Extension Agents and Teachers of Agricultural Science on motivational strategies required by trainers for enhancing their performance in training the almajiris for occupations in cotton production at skill acquisition centre.
Scope of the Study
The study was carried out in the Northwest Nigeria, encompassing seven States which includes: Jigawa, Kano, Kaduna, Katsina, Kebbi, Sokoto and Zamfara. The area is located in the guinea and Sahel savannah zones of the country.The area shares boundry with Niger Republic to the East, Niger State to the South East, Kwara State to the South and Benin Republic to the West. The study was restricted to development of motivational training programme in cotton for enhancing the entry of almairis into cotton production occupations. It covers (i) growing, processing and marketing of cotton (ii) motivational strategies for enhancing the entry and sustainability of almajiris into cotton production occupations and motivational strategies for trainers in training. (iii) Training procedure to be utilized by trainers during training in cotton production. The study was also restricted to collection of data through the use of questionnaire from Agricultural Extension Agent, Teachers of Agricultural Science in secondary schools, Cotton Processors and Marketers involved in processing and marketing of cotton.