DEVELOPMENT POLICY SUPPORT FRAMEWORK THAT CAN REDUCE THE RATE OF BUILDING COLLAPSE IN NIGERIA
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The occurrence of building failure and collapse has become a major issue of concern in the development of this nation as the magnitudes of this incident are becoming very unbecoming. This study therefore examines the developmental policies support framework that will ameliorate the rate of building collapse in Nigeria. The study examined the contributory role of the informal sector to this decadence. The study indicated that the building failure and collapse stem principally from hasty construction, low quality workmanship, poor supervision, inexperience (use of incompetent hands), ignorance, evasion/ non-compliance with building regulations and non-enforcement of building quality, standard and control on construction site/market.
1.1 Background of the study
Building collapse, though a common phenomenon all over the world is more rampant and devastating in the developing countries. The incidence of building failures and collapses has become major issues of concern in the development of this nation as the frequencies of their occurrence and the magnitude of the losses in terms of lives and properties are now becoming very alarming. In fact, building collapse has now become a familiar occurrence, even to layman on the street in Nigeria. Failure in building can be described as the inability of the building components not being adequate to perform what are normally expected or required of those components. On the other hand, when part or whole structure has failed and suddenly gave way in a way that as a result of this failure, the building could not meet the purpose for which it was intended, the building has collapsed. Failures in building can occur during different stages of construction process itself, as well as after. In Nigeria, the common causes of building collapse have been traced to bad design, faulty construction, use of low quality materials, hasty construction, foundation failure, lack of proper supervision, ineffective enforcement of building codes by the relevant Town Planning Authorities, lack of proper maintenance e.t.c. (Folagbade, 2001 and Badejo, 2009) Cases of building collapse are not restricted by climatology or level of urbanization as they cut across cultural and ethnical barriers. Many cases of building collapse have been reported in Nigeria. For instance, Folagbade (2001) and Chinwokwo (2000) enumerated forty-two (42) cases of building collapse as occurring between 1980 and 1999 in Nigeria while Makinde ( 2007) listed fifty-four (54) cases occurring between January 2000 and June 2007 alone. Building collapse has also been observed to cut across the different categories of building – private, corporate or public. Folagbade (2001) showed that of the twenty-five (25) reported cases of building collapse between 1980 and 1999 in Lagos State, private (76%), corporate (12%) and government or public buildings (12%) accounted for these proportions. Also, building collapse is no respecter of size of the structure. Amusan (1991) reported that Barnawa flat disaster in 1977 was a three-storey building, a public building (Secondary School) which collapsed in March 1988 at Ibadan was two-storey building, the collapsed show-room for cars in Lagos in 1987 was just a storey building while that of the Primary School in IIoabuchi, River State in July 1991 was a bungalow building. Folagbade (2001) also reports that the Abuja building which collapsed in March, 1993 and the one at Ojuelegba in 1999 were both multi-storey buildings. The memory of the incidents of two separate building collapses that occurred at Ebute-Meta area of Lagos State and Kano State which killed several people in 2007 still lingers on. Also reported was the fence of a Nursery and Primary School that collapsed at Olomi area, Ibadan, in March, 2008, thereby killing thirteen (13) pupils of the School. The death of over 50 students of Saque Comprehensive College, Port Harcourt in1990 was as a result of the owner attempting to construct additional floors on structurally unsafe walling. Similar trends of conversion were observed in a collapsed Mosque building in Mushin area, Lagos in 2001 and multi-storey commercial/residential building in Ebute-Meta also in Lagos state in which several people were killed. Some of the cases of building collapse are also as a result of ignorance on the part of developers and unauthorized conversion of buildings. Amusan (1991) asserts that the 1988 building collapse at Mushin, Lagos occurred when an attempt was made to raise the existing building by another floor. Also, operational conversion caused the collapsed school building at PortHarcourt. However, recent events in places like Abuja, Lagos, Port Harcourt, Enugu, Aba, and other places in the country have seen these buildings as a growing cause of death, loss of property, and has left many people injured, (Ayuba, 2007). In just 2005, more than 10 buildings collapsed in Lagos and Port Harcourt alone, not to mention those in Abuja, Kaduna and other places not publicized, (Agba, 2005; Awojobi, 2005; Salau, 2005; Sanni, 2005). These buildings either collapsed at construction stage or after habitation (during the building life span), but studies have shown that some buildings in Nigeria collapses during construction stage, (Sanni 2005). However, it is very important to note that buildings collapse due to a variety of reasons such as bad design, faulty construction, foundation failures, and extra ordinary loads, (Calvert, 2007; Onyemachi, et al, 2005). Earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, avalanches and other weather phenomenon have shown a far greater capacity for destruction, than society has for building structures that will withstand the weather or earth disruptions, (Haruna, 2007). So inasmuch as weather has a role to play as a natural cause for collapsed structures, the September 11th shocker on the twin towers in New York City can be termed as a man-made destructive force. In ensuring qualitative housing and urban development, the federal government will do well by ensuring that the menace of collapsed buildings is completely dealt with, or it will simply be providing death traps for its citizens.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Sadly however, the issues of building collapse during and after construction has failed to receive the attention it deserve from public and private clients and other construction sector stakeholders in Nigeria. This is ironic because of the obvious consequences of building collapse on urban and socio-economic development. Buildings that meet desired performance requirements add value to the national asset stock and enhance its Gross Domestic Product. Such buildings are sustainable because they meet the needs of the present while also contributing to future needs. There is only one alternative to sustainability; unsustainability which under-performing buildings portend to Nigeria’s economy. Several productive lives and properties have been lost in the various incidents of building collapse in Nigeria, and these losses, which would only truly be felt by future generations, have negatively impacted the socio-economic status of its citizenry. It is in view of the above that the researcher intends to examine the development policy support framework that can reduce the rate of building collapse in Nigeria.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of policy support framework that can reduce the rate of collapse building in Nigeria. But to aid the completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following specific objectives;
- To examine the effectiveness of policies support framework in ensuring quality construction project
- To examine the relationship between policy framework and the rate of collapse buildings in Nigeria.
- To examine the impact of town planning act in curtailing the rate of building collapse.
- To examine the role of town and country planning Acts in reducing the rate of collapse building in Nigeria
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
The following research questions were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion
- How effective is policies support framework in ensuring quality construction project?
- Is there any relationship between policy framework and the rate of collapse buildings in Nigeria?
- Does town planning act have any impact in curtailing the rate of building collapse?
- Does town and country planning Acts play any role in reducing the rate of collapse building in Nigeria?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:
1This study will educate the general public and the experts in the construction projects industry on the causes of collapse in building construction in Nigeria with a view of proffering solution to the problem. This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic. The study will also be of importance to construction companies and contractors as the study seek to explore the development policy support framework that will ameliorate the incessant incidence of building collapse in Nigeria. Finally, the study will be of importance to academia’s, researchers, educationist, students and the general public as the study will contribute to the pool of existing literature on the subject matter.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers development policy support framework that can reduce the rate of building collapse in Nigeria, but in the cause of the study, there were some factors that limited the scope;
Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
Availability of research material: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
A policy framework is document that sets out a set of procedures or goals, which might be used in negotiation or decision-making to guide a more detailed set of policies, or to guide ongoing maintenance of an organization’s policies.
A building is a structure that has a roof and walls, for example a house or a factory. They were on the upper floor of the building.
A building undergoes progressive collapse when a primary structural element fails, resulting in the failure of adjoining structural elements, which in turn causes further structural failure.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc. Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter. Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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