The differential effects of marital stress among working and non-working married women in sabon-gari Local government area of kaduna state, nigeria
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Understanding the nature and maintenance of close relationships requires consideration of stress. The main issue, however, relates to the potential repercussions of this event. Many scholars have recently concentrated on the multiple role stress that women suffer at home and at work, as well as how they manage such stress. In light of this, the study looked at how marital stress affected married women who were employed and those who were not in Sabon-Gari Local Government Area of Kaduna State. It also looked at the different types of marital stress, the causes of marital stress, and the coping mechanisms used by employed and unemployed married women. Role theory served as the foundation for this study in order to offer a theoretical justification for the subject matter. A sample of 320 married women was given a questionnaire using simple stratified and purposive sampling approaches. Six in-depth interviews (IDI) with social workers, local leaders, and religious figures were also done. There were three focus group meetings. According to the investigation, working married women in the study area were much less anxious than non-working married women. Among non-working married women, polygamy, living with family, and crowding were all linked to stress. The study also showed that rising up early to get kids ready for school and sharing a parking space are two sources of stress that working women experience at home. All of the respondents concurred that their husbands’ tension was a key cause of their own stress. Both groups of respondents concurred on the primary stressor as being the issue with the in-laws. However, the respondents’ occupation had an impact on the kinds of limitations housewives experienced. The main contributing causes to this stress among married women who aren’t working were found to be time management and financial constraints. Therefore, it is advised that social assistance and counseling interventions be made in order to support the needs of women generally.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
Marriage, which entails both emotional and legal obligations to each other throughout adult life, is one of the most significant partnerships that can exist between a man and a woman. The process of choosing a spouse and entering into a marriage contract is regarded as a personal accomplishment, and choosing a spouse is undoubtedly among the most significant choices one will ever make. Physical attraction, love, happiness, companionship, and the desire to have children are just a few of the numerous reasons people get married. Marriage is a sexual connection that is socially and legally accepted where the individuals involved have an understanding about having children and protecting those children in the future (Khurshid, 2006). She made it clear that:
Marriage as a socially acceptable sexual union starts with a public declaration made with certain notions of permanence; it is assumed with a more or less explicit marriage contract that outlines the rights and responsibilities that each party will have toward the other and any future children. Khan Khurshid (2006):19,
Contrarily, stress is the psychological response that happens when people feel that the demands being made of them are greater than their capacity to meet them (Kroemer and Grandjean, 2001). Relationships within the family, one’s profession, and one’s thought process are some sources of stress. Household chores, motherhood, and other responsibilities are among the workloads that put women under stress at home when they don’t work outside the home. When there aren’t enough resources to mitigate its effects, stress may even get worse in this situation (Dreyfus, 2009).
A working married woman, according to Goldin (1990), is a woman who consistently and occasionally continuously works for the family’s support. While a non-working married woman is someone who constantly and wholly relies on her husband’s financial stability and waits for him to take care of everything that needs money. These women have regular difficulties (stresses) both within and outside the home depending on their marital status. These difficulties have the power to strengthen or weaken a conjugal union.
The most commonly mentioned sources of marital stress in marriage include money, children, daily routines, busy schedules, and inadequate communication. In reality, the concept of stressors includes recurring little occurrences like power outages, absent maids, unannounced guests, and unruly kids. It is possible to control the situation, though, with a thorough awareness of the different stressors that contribute to stress (Pearlin, 1978). The stresses and stress in the family environment have a direct impact on homemakers. Women who work outside the home face particular difficulties since they must juggle the demands of their careers and domestic responsibilities. In order to assist women in coping with their daily activities, some developed nations of the world, including the United States and other nations, have institutionalized relief mechanisms like six-month maternity allowances, children allowances up to the age of ten, comprehensive income support, medicare, and other benefits. Preschools and daycare centers have increased in these areas as a result of the phenomenon of more women entering the workforce (Adewuyi, 2000).
In contrast, the researcher discovered that there was no national assistance program for women in paid occupations in Nigeria during a preliminary visit to Sabon Gari Local Government Area as part of the preparation for this study. The few daycare facilities that were already in place were out of most moms’ price range. Women with paid employment appear to have two main options: either hunt for house help, which is currently very dangerous and difficult to find, or work extra hard while juggling all the responsibilities. After highlighting some of these marital difficulties, the study’s specific focus is on the differences in how marital stress affects married women who work and those who do not in Sabon Gari Local Government Area, Kaduna State.
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