DIVISION OF LABOUR AND SPECIALIZATION A TOOL OF INDUSTRIAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
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This study is on division of labour and specialization a tool of industrial growth and development. The total population for the study is 200 staff Vita foam company, Enugu state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made production managers, sales mangers, senior staffs and junior staffs were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
TABLE OF CONTENT
Background to the study
Statement of Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the study
Delimitation /scope of study
Limitation of Study
Review of Related Literature
Summary of Literature Review
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
Population of Study
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Validity of Instrument
Administration of the Instrument
Method of Data Analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
Data presentation and Analysis
Discussion of Results
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
- Background of the study
To enhance the better understanding of the project topic “ Division of labour and specialization a tool of industrial development and growth”, it is proper to start its origin and consequently the modern approach. Division of labour has been with us for a time now. It started in a primitive form with the creation of human being by God, God created man and women and made their function known to them. While the man was made to get the daily bread for the family, the woman was also charged with child bearing. Division of labour can also be formed among insects and ants. In ants the soldiers are meant to secure the ants, the workers are meant to look around for food while the Queen and the king are charged for child bearing. All this are form of division of labour. Similarly, specialization has taken place in this primitive Form of division of labour. From the study of history, it is known that in the most primitive community everybody tried to be self sufficient. Each person provided whatever he needed. But as the population grew, life became a little more difficult. Nature was namable for provide for everything and individual wanted in a particular geographical region. It then became necessary for each individual to engage in a particular activity in which he can undertake with much case. Since he could not provide or be in access of everything he needed, it became necessary for him to produce more of what he could, so as to exchange the extra quantity for what he needed but which he was unable to produce. This is form of division of labour and specialization in the rural community. In modern world, the origin of division of labour dates back to the period of the industrial revolution. With the change in the production methods, operations in industries were split up to different aspects and people started to specialize in different aspect of the production processes. With this specialization, the product of a simple commodity necessitated the co-operation of many individuals who specialize in different aspects of production process. This productions brought about increase in output. Adam smith identified this as early as 1776 in the book, which he published at that time which be called “Enginery into the wealth of nation”. By his visits to put making industry he discovered that as a result of division of labour, the output of the industry increased by more than 200%. Finally, the modern approach of division of labour is about the effectiveness of employers of labour to harness all available economic resources at their disposal to the attainment of qualitative and grantitation provision of goods and services.
STAEMENT OF PROBLEM
Perhaps, over the year, the most prominent reason for industries undergoing poor industrial development is due to inadequate attention given to division of labour and specialization. This country is blessed with natural resources both human and material. Yet we remain underdeveloped. Now it is time to ask, division of labour and specialization can’t we practice them in our various home, industries , communities etc. why can’t our industries change its industrial status through this technique? My own opinion is stated below. Since the concept of division of labour dates back to 1776 when Adam smith had a visit to a pin-making industry, there was an increase in their production by over 200%. Similarly, vita foam industry a firm that practice division of labour and specializes in foam making in Nigeria, in the year 2003, its annual turnover was N3,887 million. This is because the management segregates duties. The company which first opened in 1963 at Ikeja, Lagos is now having five factory location and seven main distribution channels throughout the federation. This growth and development was as a result of effective division of labour and proper management. From foreign discussion, one can equally agree with me that these economic tools can be used to attain industrial development in our industries as a whole. But the critical issues are how this positive change can occur.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
Apart from knowing the extent of mass production and industrial growth of vita foam industry, there are several other objectives of this study. They are:
– To study the activities of vita foam industry
– To understand the different products manufactured by the industry both main product and by product.
– To know why vita foam industry’s products are of higher quality when compared with other industries engaged in related goods and services.
– To know the extent of changes in personnel management as it affect division of labour and specialization.
– To know the extent of turnover as it affect the demand of its product because it express people’s likeness for their product.
– To point out or give recommendation in areas where the company has shortfalls in its use of labor services.
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: there is no extent of changes in personnel management as it affect division of labour and specialization
H1: there is extent of changes in personnel management as it affect division of labour and specialization
H02: vita foam industry’s products are of higher quality when compared with other industries engaged in related goods and services
H2: vita foam industry’s products are of low quality when compared with other industries engaged in related goods and services
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The apparent reason why I write on this topic is to recommend to top managers be it government owed establishment or individual owned, the heed to embark and encourage division of labour in such establishments. As we all know, division of labour and specialization contributes immensely to industrial development and growth. Since we all know that if increase output, saves time, avoid duplication of tools, enable specialization and less fatigue at work. It becomes clearly that every manager should master its use and application for fully developed and efficient management.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Specifically, the scope of this work is limited to division of labor and specialization as it affect vita foam industry Enugu branch. This include labour utilization, skilled and unskilled labour, especially production aspect, the reference were made to factory side Aba. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
- c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Division of labour – Breaking down of production process into deferent stages so as to enable each person partake in the production line to perform and specialize on work he know best.
Specialization – When an individual, firms or government concentration on production related commodities and exchange for others in which it do not produce.
Industrial growth – This can be defined as a rapid and sustained rise in output with low and efficient input.
Industrial development – Overall orends or process in which output transformation are achieved with little reference to or significant degree of industrial growth.
Firm – an arm of industry engaged in production
Industry – a group of firm producing similar products.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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