DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND PSYCHOSOCIAL HEALTH OF ADOLESCENT IN CHILDBEARING FAMILIES IN ITU L.G.A
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Background to the study
The family, which is the smallest social unit, is one of the primary socialization forces. Because it is where a child first interacts with people in life and because it has a significant impact on the development of the child, the family is the first and most significant agent of socialization. According to psychology, a child’s brain is like a blank white board, and whatever is written on it stays there and affects the child’s development in either a positive or negative way. A child is impacted favorably or badly by husband and wife’s actions in the home. Domestic violence is one of the variables that affect a home today, according to research. Over the years, domestic violence has been defined in a variety of ways. Regardless of sex or gender, it is defined by Amnesty International, Nigeria (2005) as an act of threatening, harassing, or violence of any kind—psychological, physical, sexual, or emotional—between adults who are currently or have previously been in a relationship. Domestic abuse, rape, sexual assault, human trafficking, genital mutilation, and forced marriage are additional forms of violence against adolescents. Inflicted by their husbands, domestic violence on women has a number of negative effects on their health and social lives. It can result in suicides, child dispersal, and even child neglect. In an intimate relationship, such as a marriage, dating, family, or cohabitation, it is a pattern of abusive behaviors by one partner against another. According to this definition, domestic violence can take many different forms, such as physical aggression or assault (such as hitting, kicking, biting, shoving, restraint, slapping, or throwing objects), or threats of such behavior; sexual abuse; emotional abuse; controlling or domineering; intimidation; stalking; passive/covert abuse, also known as neglect; and economic deprivation (Seimeniuk, Krentz, Gish, and Gill, 2010). Domestic abuse and violence are not just overt acts of physical violence. According to the National Network to End Domestic Violence (2011), it can refer to endangerment, illegal coercion, kidnapping, unlawful incarceration, trespassing, harassment, and stalking. Any nation’s and the world’s progress require the participation of women. Permanent change is frequently best accomplished through women because they are homemakers, guardians of social, cultural, and fundamental values, and they make up half of the world’s population. It is impossible to fully create a community without their comprehension, cooperation, and active involvement. Women need respect, acknowledgment, and better treatment given their importance as mothers, teachers, caregivers, and occasionally breadwinners, but this is typically not the case. According to Davies (2010), women are treated unfairly, are exploited, and are enslaved in a cycle of poverty. Their male counterparts likewise use various sorts of violence against them. In Nigeria, incidents of domestic violence against women have been on the rise. The media has reported on instances where men have killed and injured their spouses. The newspaper This Day (2011) provided some ominous facts. A little over half of women have experienced husband abuse. Surprisingly, more educated women (65%) than women from low-income families (55%), are in this dreadful predicament. Most people persevere because they believe they have nowhere else to go and, more importantly, because they firmly believe that the law will not protect them. Unbelievable 97.2% of them aren’t ready to report to the Nigerian Police. Only four of the Federation’s states—Lagos included—have passed legislation to combat the pernicious crime, while numerous other bills are stalled in our male-dominated National Assembly. The law has not yet been put to the fullest test in the states that have passed it.
Between childhood and adulthood, adolescence is the developmental stage that marks the time when a person goes through a number of physical and psychological changes. Adolescents have a variety of issues, dysfunctions, and disputes throughout this time, which ultimately hinders normal psychosocial development and exacerbates psychosocial dysfunction. The surroundings at home and at school have the biggest impact on adolescence. It is a special stage in human development when young boys and girls are just beginning the process of discovering who they are and developing into independent, self-sufficient people. The formation of social and emotional behaviors necessary for mental and emotional well-being must occur at this critical time. Adolescents’ rapid development in physical, cognitive, emotional, and psychosocial areas has an impact on how they perceive, experience, and engage with their internal and external environments. According to estimates, one in seven adolescents (aged 10 to 19) worldwide suffers from a mental disorder, with the most common ones being depression, anxiety, and behavioral problems. A crucial time in life for laying the groundwork for adult health and wellbeing is adolescence. The majority of lifetime psychiatric diseases begin their first signs and symptoms by the ages of 14 and 24, respectively. Adolescents’ whole development is now threatened by psychosocial issues. According to a study conducted in Dehradun, psychosocial issues were present in 40.5% of cases overall. The prevalence of psychological issues among teenagers overall was found to be 31.2% in another cross-sectional study conducted in Dehradun. In a similar vein, a research conducted in Nepal found that 17.03 percent of teenagers had psychosocial disorder. Teenagers have extremely specific requirements that must be met, and these demands can no longer be disregarded. Adolescents must receive investment because they are the nation’s future.
Statement of the Problem
Through interaction with others, a person acquires new skills, information, and behaviors. This process starts in the family. When a youngster first learns to walk, talk, and call his or her name in the family, they are in the primary stage of socialization, which comes before the secondary. The acts of the husband and wife in the family have an effect on the child, either positively or negatively. Parents instruct their kids. A child imitates everything his parents do because he views it as positive. A youngster goes through many stages as they develop. A child may experience physical, psychological, emotional, and behavioral issues as a result of the forms of violence he or she is exposed to if they watch their father hitting and abusing their mother verbally, physically, or sexually. The frequency of domestic violence has been rising recently. Numerous children’s development has been harmed by domestic violence, which has also had an impact on their future. It might also have an impact on the child’s academic performance, relationships with classmates, perceptions of the opposite sex, and other aspects of the child’s life. There has been a rise in awareness of the detrimental effects domestic abuse has on a child’s growth and psychological well-being (Dodd, 2009).
Domestic violence can cause a variety of emotional and behavioral issues in children, including an increase in aggression, anxiety, and alterations in how they interact with peers, family, and adults. Along with a deficiency in abilities like problem-solving, issues with attitude and cognition can start to emerge in schools. According to Lehmann (1995), an abuser may purposefully harm the mother in front of the child in order to create a domino effect and look for two victims at once. Children who witness maternal abuse are more likely to get post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, according to research.
The following questions guide the study:
- What are the psychosocial impacts of domestic violence on a child?
- What are the various forms of domestic violence women from child bearing families experience?
- How has domestic violence against women affected the academic performance of a child?
This research aims at examining domestic violence and psychosocial health of adolescent in child bearing families in Itu L.G.A
- Examine the academic consequences of domestic violence against women on a child.
- Investigate the different forms of domestic violence
- To examine the effect of domestic violence on the psychosocial health of adolescent
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