EFFECT OF E-EXAMINATION ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENT IN THE DEPARTMENT OF CONTINUE EDUCATION IN UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI
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It is no longer news that the Nigeria educational system has embrace the reality of ICT in the educational sector. With the numerous benefit and challenge facing the Nigeria educational system in the quest to fully automate the educational setting, with the view of examining the effect of e-examination on the academic performance of student in university of Maiduguri. In this study, the researcher examined the impacts, associated challenges and security lapses of the existing electronic-examination system with the aim of ameliorating and developing a new acceptable e-Exam system that takes care of the existing system’s challenges and security lapses. 200 student of continue education across all levels in university of Maiduguri was randomly selected by the researcher as the population of the study.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
- Background of the study
It seems indisputable that trends in computer technology, with specific reference to the development of the Internet and its introduction into distance learning have impacted greatly the delivery of distance education. Electronic examination has been highly interested and suitable in both educational and pedagogical aspects. Examination is one of the best methods of evaluating the knowledge and ability of an individual. To this end, various methods has been employed in examining the ability of an individual, starting from manual means of using paper and pencil to electronic, from oral to written, practical to theoretical and many others. The present information technology means of examining students is the use of electronic systems in place of manual or paper method which was characterized by massive examination leakages, impersonations, demand for gratification by teachers, bribe-taking by supervisors and invigilators of examinations. The employers are conducting aptitude test for their job seekers through electronic means; the universities and other tertiary institutions are registering and conducting electronic examination for their students through the internet and other electronic and networking gadgets, various examination bodies in the country like the West Africa Examination Council (WAEC), National Examination Council (NECO), National Board for Technical Education (NABTEB), National Teacher Institute (NTI) e.t.c. register their students through electronic means, recently electronic examination has been widely adopted by nearly all the Nigeria University for post Unified Tertiary and Matriculation Examination (Post-UTME) otherwise called pre-admission screening. With these aforementioned and many more educational bodies engaging in electronic examination and registration for testing the ability of their candidates, which determine the future of this great country and our dear youth, there is need for serious examination of the system which has great impacts on the populace. Some of the positive impacts are on course delivery, feedback and assessment. In line with the above trend, at the 54th session of the Senate of the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN), the Senate of the University approved the commencement of electronic examination (e-examination) from 14th June, to 14th July, 2010 for all students of the University. Consequently, Jegede (2010) (the then Vice Chancellor) posited that the e-examination introduced by the distance learning institution has come to stay. He assured the students that the University was prepared to ensure that its registered students participate in the examination without stress, adding that the maiden e-examination was to be used in the 39 centres across the country. He added that “about 30, 000 students are expected to take part in the new mode of examination.” In fact, history has been made by the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) because it is the first time an African University has organized and implemented e-examination. However, from students’ point of view, examinations have a positive effect on their learning and are ‘fair’ when they: (1) relate to authentic tasks, (2) represent reasonable demands, (3) encourage students to apply knowledge to realistic contexts, (4) emphasize the need to develop a range of skills, and (5) are perceived to have long- term benefits (Sambell, McDowell & Brown, 1997). Research has also found that students’ perception of the mode of examination, based on their former and recent learning experiences affect the quality of their learning outcomes (Segers & Dochy, 2001). Wang, Newlin, and Tucker (2001) further found that many webbased students expressed feelings of intense anxiety about the technology. This is because, those who have never taken an online course or who have little computer experience considered an online examination as frightening. Moreover, adult students have reservations about the use of technology due to low level of Computer literacy (Shedletsky, 2006). The experience of learning is made less satisfactory when examination modes are perceived to be inappropriate by learners (Ramsden, 1997). This perhaps explains why students often display negative attitudes to what they consider to be inappropriate modes of examination. Entwistle and Tait (1990) found that students reported preference for modes of examination which allowed them to demonstrate their understanding. Prior to 2010, the University was able to conduct only two pen and paper exams since inception due to lack of capacity to handle the overwhelming student population compared to the human and infrastructural requirements for such exercise. The scope of NOUN End of semester examination as at 2010 showed that NOUN has ninety thousand, seven hundred and sixty seven (90,767) registered students and one thousand and twenty examinable courses. The courses and the students are spread in seven (7) schools and centres in the university and dispersed in thirty nine (39) study centres in all the thirty-six (36) states of Nigeria. This implies that if the entire registered students will also register and sit for examination, the institution will be handling about one million (1,000,000) answer scripts multiplied by number of courses registered per student (Okonkwo, 2010b). The manual processing of such scripts poses administrative nightmare. Hence, the decision to explore the possibilities of conducting electronic examination. But what do the lecturers think about e-exams? It is a fact that Lecturers’ attitude towards e-learning activities could be seen as the product of their perceptions of the usefulness of e-learning and the level of technical difficulty envisaged to be encountered while exploring the potentials of e-learning technology. In other words, the negative or positive perception of lecturers’ ease of technology use and the value associated with its use in educational processes have greater influence on their intention to explore the potentials of the technology. Lecturers’ decision about the use of ICT for instructional process is affected by factors such as demographic, experience in the use of the technology, intellectual enhancement, training, enabling environment, and individual’s perception (Fabry and Higgs, 1997; Keller and Cernerud, 2002; Murphy and Greenwood, 1998; Samuel and Bakar, 2006). Individual’s computer knowledge and access to computers cannot be underscored in respect of student evaluation. Albion (1999) reported that teacher’s use of technology for teaching is a product of their belief about technology in respect of the acquired knowledge in computer usage. Similarly, Aduwa-Ogiegbaen (2006) identified computer knowledge as one of the components of computer competencies.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There is a plethora of terminologies associated with the use of information and communications technology (ICT) in the management of the assessment process in higher education. Some of them include e-examination, e-testing, web-based assessment, computer based assessment, online assessment, computer-aided assessment and e-assessment etc. From the initial focus on certification testing for the IT industry, e-assessment has grown into a widely accepted delivery model serving virtually every market that was once dominated by pen-on paper testing. Nearly one million tests per month are delivered in high-stakes, technology-enabled testing centers all over the world. Educational institutions are not left out in the adoption of such smart innovative technology in the delivery and sanitization of the evaluation process. It is in view of the above that the researcher intends to examine the effect of e-examination on the academic performance of student in university of Maiduguri
- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study is to examine the effect of e-examination on the academic performance of student in the department of continue education in University of Maiduguri; but to aid the completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following specific objectives;
- To examine the effect of e-examination on student academic performance
- To examine the role of e-examination in enhancing student literacy in computer operation
- To examine the relationship between e-examination and student academic performance
- To examine the impact of e-examination in curbing examination malpractice and missing script
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: e-examination does not have any effect on student academic performance
H1: e-examination does have an effect on student academic performance
H0: there is no significant relationship between e-examination and student academic performance
H2: there is a significant relationship between e-examination and student academic performance
- RESEARCH QUESTION
To aid the completion of the study, the following research questions were formulated by the researcher;
- Is there any effect of e-examination on student academic performance?
- Does e-examination play any role in enhancing student literacy in computer operation?
- Is there any relationship between e-examination and student academic performance?
- Is there any impact of e-examination in curbing examination malpractice and missing script?
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The present study has great significance. First of all, the study findings provide an idea about the e-examination aspects and academic performance in order to provide key information to further research work in such areas. In the same way, the study provides knowledge and guidelines to that may be of help to policymakers. The research is therefore of importance for planners, and other social scientists. More so, this study provides an input to the students, teachers and researchers in the areas of e-learning. Research works are embarked upon with a view to extending the frontier of knowledge. The present study was therefore carried out with this same objective, especially in the field of e-learning. It has therefore, contributed to the extension of the frontier of knowledge in the following ways. First, the study has shown the predictive power of the selected factors, especially socio-demographic factors, prior computer skills and time management status in the determination of the academic performance.
- SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers effect of e-examination on the academic performance of student in the department of continue education in university of Maiduguri, but in the cause of the study, there were some factors which militate against the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
- c) Finance: the finance at the disposal of the researcher was a major constrain to the scope of the studies as the resources were not sufficient for the scope of the study to cover the entire school and beyond.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
An e-Exam (e-exam) is a timed, supervised, summative assessment conducted using each candidate’s own computer running a standardized operating system.
Computer base assessment
Computer-Based Assessment(CBA), also known as Computer-Based Testing (CBT), e-assessment, computerized testing and computer-administered testing, is a method of administering tests in which the responses are electronically recorded, assessed, or both.
Academic achievement or (academic) performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals. Cumulative GPA and completion of educational degrees such as High School and bachelor’s degrees represent academic achievement
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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