EFFECT OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS IN TEACHING OF GEOGRAPHY IN SECONDARY SCHOOL IN MUBI NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ADAMAWA STATE
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Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE
The study examine the effect of instructional aids in teaching of geography in secondary school in Mubi North Local Government Area of Adamawa State. Performance of Geography subject in Mubi North Local Government Area has been poor. Over the years, the results have not been satisfactory to the teachers, parents and other stake holders. This prompted the researcher to investigate whether the educators and learners use instructional materials in practical geography. The following objectives were used in the study, to establish the utilization of instructional materials for Practical Geography, investigate extent the teaching and learning materials are used, establish the views of the teachers and students towards use of instructional materials, and establish the challenges faced by teachers when teaching Geography. The theoretical framework of the study was based on Edgar Dale’s cone of experience. The study design used was descriptive survey. The study population comprised of Geography Head teachers, teachers and students in secondary schools. Simple and random sampling techniques were used in selecting the research participants. This included a sample of 5 schools, 300 students, 5 Geography Head teachers and 10 Geography teachers. Students and teachers’ questionnaire, interview schedule and checklists were used in data collection. Analysis of data was done using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics such as include frequencies and percentages. The collected data collected was coded and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used in data analysis. The results showed that 70 % of the schools had instructional materials yet only 22.5% of teachers utilize these materials while more than three quarters rarely or never utilize instructional materials. Majority of Geography teachers had poor attitude towards utilization of instructional materials. The study also revealed that Maps were the most utilized materials in classrooms, the least utilized being radios and dioramas. The study recommended that school management and administrators should improve instructional materials for teaching and learning Geography by availing computers, geography teachers should be enlightened on the importance of utilizing instructional materials in teaching and learning Geography teachers should be motivated in order to change their negative attitude toward utilization of instructional materials. Learners should be encouraged through field trips around the school and beyond and lastly the geography syllabus ought to be reviewed and also a number of lessons increased from three lessons to four per week and to five lessons in the upper classes.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objective of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope of the study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
LITERATURE REVIEW AND RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 The Meaning and Origin of Teaching and Learning Materials
2.2 Types of Instructional materials for Practical Geography
2.3 Geography Teaching and Learning Materials
2.4 Teachers’ Attitude Towards the Use of Instructional materials
2.5 Students’ Views Towards the Use of Materials in Teaching and Learning
2.6 Challenges faced by Learners in Practical Geography
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Target Population
3.3 Sampling Techniques and Sample Size
3.4 Research Instruments
3.5 Pilot study
3.6 Validity of the Instruments
3.8 Data Collection Procedure
3.9 Data Analysis
3.10 Logistical and Ethical Considerations
DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 Demographic Analysis
4.2 Types of Instructional materials used in Teaching and learning Geography
4.3 Extent of Utilization of Material Materials
4.4 Teachers’ Attitude Towards Use of Instructional materials
4.5 Students’ Attitude Towards the Utilization of Materials
4.6 Challenges faced in the Teaching and learning of geography
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary of the Study
5.2 Conclusion of the Study
5.3 Recommendations of the Study
5.4 Suggestions for Further Research
The word geography is coined from two Greek words ‘Geo’ meaning earth and ‘graphy’ meaning to describe. Therefore, geography can also be defined as description of the earth. Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally “earth description”) is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth. Geography is unique in bridging the social sciences (human geography) with the natural sciences (physical geography). Geography is simply defined as a science that deals with Earth’s surface. People who study geography are called geographers. Geographers are interested in Earth’s physical features, such as mountains, deserts, rivers, and oceans. They are also interested in the ways that people affect and are affected by the natural world. Geography has everything to do with our Everyday Life. Geography is the study of place, and seeks to understand the ways in which humans influence their environment, and in turn explore the influence the environment has on humans. Quite simply, it is the study of the world around us. Instructional materials are materials which assist teachers to make their lessons explicit to learners. They are also used to transmit information, ideas and notes to learners (Ijaduola (1997). Instructional materials include both visuals and audiovisuals such as pictures, flashcards, posters, charts, tape recorder, radio, video, television, computers among others. These materials serve as supplement to the normal processes of instructional materials according to Emma and Ajayi (2004) are those things which help teaching and learning process. It helps to promote understanding of the concept and generalization by making lesson practical and realistic. Any teacher who has the interest of the student at heart is bound to think of the ways and means he will employ to make his teaching and learning process moiré effective and more interesting to students. Bassey (2002) opinioned that Science is material intensive, and in a period of economic recession, it may be very difficult to find some of the electronic gadgets and equipment for the teaching of geography in senior secondary schools adequately. According to Adeniyi (2000), the effect of instructional materials is to communicate more permanently, health related issues, and information is retained when supplemented with aid. Certainly instructional materials when carefully selected and skillfully used will make learning more effective. Therefore it becomes necessary to investigate the importance of instructional materials in teaching and learning of biology. However, man and animal possess the necessary abilities for learning. In other words, they are potential learners. Certain factors within and outside the learner determine how effectively each individual learn. Instructional materials can be in different forms such as textual and nontextual, the visual the auditory and audiovisual. Witwoth and Benson (2003), indicate that there is a need for research on the use and effectiveness of visual instructional materials in biology classroom that would enhances its teaching. With these concerns in mind and the educational development, The current study is carried out to address the issues associated with the effect of instructional materials in geography teachinglearning in Senior Secondary schools. Schools should provide enough instructional materials to enable teachers clarify their lesson. Adequate infrastructure facilities and conducive atmosphere for effective teaching learning of geography and retention of what is learnt. Schools should send their geography teachers to seminars and workshops in order to update their knowledge.
The Nigeria Institute of Curriculum Development (2010) builds on the experience gained in primary school in order to prepare the learner for future studies. The curriculum content is derived from basic to more difficult geographical concepts for learners psychological development. The content of NICD (2010) syllabus include several aspects such as photograph, field, and map works as well as statistical methods introduced early and their treatment magnified as the academic level increases. The Geography of Nigeria has been spread and integrated into the four-year course. Teachers today are required to provide students with opportunities to understand the implications of life on global society, an age of faster air travel in which man-made satellites whirl around the earth. Flat maps of towns and cities are usually used to locate people, streets or places we plan to visit. Newspapers and magazines contain many different kinds of maps, which people read and understand them to use their information. The inclusion of Practical Geography in both the Physical and Human Geography is not only done solely for the purpose of passing an examination but also comprise an activity that leaves a lasting value to those who participate in it. The study sought to investigate the utilization of materials in teaching and learning of geography in secondary schools.
The effect of using instructional materials in geography teaching learning has been widely researched but many questions are still remains unanswered. The needs for exploring locally available materials as an alternative for the grossly unavailable materials in our schools, materials of the teacher must be in line with the learners’ curriculum and environment so that classroom teaching does not have to be retarded by lack of funds. Hence, government must strive to develop her local technology in all its ramifications, since geography is interested in providing solutions to man’s problems holistically. Many writers in geography have pointed out the grossly unavailability of instructional materials coupled with teachers attitude towards the utilization during classroom teachinglearning situations. Instructional materials not available in our schools, teachers are not improvising and/or reluctant in using them. Thus, this research attempt to Identify various secondary schools that required instructional materials in teaching geography, Identify instructional materials needed for effective teaching and learning of geography in senior secondary school, Identify instructional materials available in senior secondary schools and Identify the effectiveness of instructional materials like chalkboard, funnel board, model real things, overhead projector, tape recorders, radio, television etc, in the performance of students in senior secondary schools, in Mubi North Local Government Area.
The main objective of the study is to examine the Effect of instructional aids in teaching of geography in secondary school. The specific objectives of the research were to:-
- Determine the types of instructional materials used for teaching Geography in Mubi North Local Government Area
- Investigate the extent to which instructional materials for teaching and learning Geography were used in Geography lessons.
- Determine the teachers’ attitude towards the use of instructional materials in teaching Geography in Mubi North Local Government Area
- Establish students’ view towards the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning Geography in Mubi North Local Government Area.
- Establish the challenges faced by teachers and learners in the use of materials in Practical Geography in Mubi North Local Government Area.
The study was guided by the following research questions
- What types of instructional materials exist in secondary schools for teaching and learning Geography?
- To what extent are the teaching and learning materials used in teaching Geography?
- What is the view of the teacher towards the available instructional materials in teaching Geography?
- What do learners think about the use of instructional materials in learning Practical Geography?
- What are the challenges facing teachers and learners in teaching Geography using instructional materials?
The findings of the study will be useful to lecturers and tutors when training Geography teachers in regards to Practical Geography. The findings will also be beneficial to the policy formulators in the Ministry of Education and Nigeria Institute of Curriculum Development as it may use the research in recommending appropriate materials while developing curriculum for teaching Geography. It will also draw the attention of materials that are available for use in teaching Geography. The finding will also provoke the Nigeria Institute of Curriculum Development and commercial publishers to come up with relevant instructional materials to be used in Teaching Geography.
The study involved Geography teachers, Heads of Geography departments and forms three Geography students in secondary schools in in Mubi North Local Government Area of Adamawa State. The research was carried out during the school term sessions only when respondents could be easily found. The study was carried out in five secondary schools in in Mubi North Local Government Area.
The major limitation was that some teachers were not willing to assist in providing the relevant information. This was covered by giving the selected teachers enough time to fill the questionnaire and was not to indicate their names on the questionnaire.
Instructional materials: What the teacher uses to make the lesson more interesting and understandable to learners
Media: what the teacher and learner use to teach and learn concepts in Practical Geography i.e. television, radio and computers
Multi-method approach: Teaching strategy that makes use of different teaching methods Practical Geography: A branch of Geography that equips learners with skills of interpreting topographical maps, photographs, fieldwork and statistical work.
Utilization: Refers to the use of learning materials by the teacher in teaching Geographical Concepts in Practical Geography
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