EFFECT OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF GOVERNMENT IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
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The research work examined the effects of instructional materials in teaching and learning of Government in secondary schools in Osun State, making Osogbo Local Government Area of the state a case study. From five schools, four Government teachers and ten students were randomly picked from each school making a total of twenty teachers and fifty students. The instrument used for collection of data was the questionnaire. Two types of questionnaire were used; the students’ questionnaire and the teachers’ questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed by the use of percentages, and frequency distribution tables were used to determine the distribution of the respondents. From the analysis of the data, the use of instructional materials was seen as very important in the schools as the students understand more and enjoy Government lessons when they are taught with instructional materials. The responses of the students during government lessons when instructional materials were used were seen to be highly encouraging. This emphasized the use of instructional materials by teachers. The findings showed that chalkboards, textbooks, maps, pictures, and real objects were the most commonly used instructional materials in government lessons in the study area.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
- Background of the study
Instructional materials have become instruments without which teaching and learning processes cannot be done. Educationists of advanced countries saw its effective use in the teaching and learning processes. The use was first in the kindergarten whereby it facilitated teaching and learning. Therefore, instructional materials have been in use from time immemorial. They help both the teacher and the learners to impart knowledge and to understand concepts respectively.
The instructional materials which enhance effective teaching and learning in primary and secondary schools, and even in tertiary institutions now, it has been introduced as a course of study in some of our higher institutions and tagged as educational technology. Also, the use of instructional materials has eaten deep into our educational fabrics that without its use, it will be difficult to teach effectively. It is no gainsaying that it is the wheel on which teaching and learning operate. Government is a study connected with all aspects of human beings to enable them live a fulfilled, comfortable and full of achievement life. It study people in relation to the social, academic, economic, cultural, physical and psychological lives. It has to do with all round development of human beings to enable them become useful citizens in the society. Wesley in Kochhar (2012) saw Government as those portions of the Social Sciences selected for instructional purposes applied to include anything pertinent to the immediate purpose of learning and adapted to the level of comprehension of the student. Abdu-Raheem (2011) observed that the objectives of Government is yet to be achieved as a result of poor teaching and lack or inadequacy of instructional materials to motivate students.Ofuani (2014) also attested to inadequacy of instructional materials and resources in all the schools sampled in his study. Instructional materials are essential and significant tools needed for teaching and learning of school subjects to promote teachers’efficiency and improve students’ performance. They make learning more interesting, practical, realistic and appealing. They also enable both the teachers and students to partcipate actively and effectively in lesson sessions. They give room for acquisition of skills and knowledge and development of self- confidence and self- actualization. Ibeneme (2000) defined teaching aids as those materials used for practical and demonstration in the class situation by students and teachers. Ikerionwu (2000) saw instructional materials as objects or devices that assist the teacher to present a lesson to the learners in a logical and manner. In his own perspective, Fadeiye (2005) saw instructional materials as visual and audio-visual aids, concrete or non-concrete, used by teachers to improve the quality of teaching and learning activities in Government. Agina-Obu (2005) submitted that instructional materials of all kinds appeal to the sense organs during teaching and learning. Isola (2010) also described instructional materials as objects or devices that assist the teachers to present their lessons logically and sequentially to the learners.Oluwagbohunmi and Abdu-Raheem (2014) acknowledged that instructional materials are such used by teachers to aid explanations and make learning of subject matter understandable to students during teaching learning process. In the same vein, Obanya (2004) asserted that several studies carried out in some areas in Nigeria indicated that the results of Senior School Certificate Examinations was completely bad in nearly all subjects offered by the students. He stressed further that only about 10% of candidates ‘meaningfully passed’ the examination. Abdu-Raheem (2011) asserted that non availability and inadequacy of instructional materials are major causes of ineffectiveness of the school system and poor performance of students in schools. Ahmed (2003) confirmed that in most secondary schools in Nigeria, teaching and learning take place under a most un-conducive environment without access to essential materials. Eniayewu (2005) posited that it is very important to use instructional aids for instructional delivery to make students acquire more knowledge and to promote academic standard. In addition, Ajayi and Ayodele (2001) stressed the importance of availability of instructional materials to achieving effectiveness in educational delivery and supervision in the school system. Ogbondah (2008) alerted on the gross inadequacy and underutilization of instructional materials necessary to compensate for the inadequacies of sense organs and to reinforce the capacity of dominant organs. He noted that school teachers should try their possible best in the provision of locally made materials in substitution for the standard ones to promote their lessons. Enaigbe (2009) noted that basic materials such as textbooks, chalkboard and essential equipment like computer, projector, television and video are not readily available in many schools. In a own study, Olumorin, Yusuf, Ajidagba and Jekayinfa (2010) observed that instructional materials help teachers to teach conveniently and the learners to learn easily without any problem. They asserted that instructional materials have direct contact with all sense organs. Kochhar (2012) supported that instructional materials are very significant learning and teaching tools. He suggested the needs for teachers to find necessary materials for instruction to supplement what textbooks provide in order to broaden concepts and arouse students’ interests in the subject. According to Abolade (2009), the advantages of instructional materials are that they are cheaper to produce, useful in teaching large number of students at a time, encourage learners to pay proper attention and enhance their interest. However, Akinleye (2010) attested that effective teaching and learning requires a teacher to teach the students with instructional materials and use practical activities to make learning more vivid, logical, realistic and pragmatic.Esu, Enukoha and Umoren (2004) agreed that instructional materials are indispensable to the effective teaching and learning activities. Ekpo (2004) also supported that teaching aids are always useful in supporting the sense organs. Despite the fact that instructional materials are essential tools that can make learning practical and knowledge acquisition easier, they are not readily available in Nigerian secondary schools leading to low level of performance of learners in government examinations (Abdu-Raheem 2014). According to Josua in Abiodun-Oyebanji and Adu(2007), instructional materials are all things that are used to support, facilitate, influence or encourage acquisition of knowledge, competency and skills. Abdu-Raheem (2014) encouraged teachers to improvise teaching aids because they are in great measure enhance learners’ full participation in the lesson, gives room for inquiry, problem-solving, discussion and clarification of issues and ideas among students and the teacher. Riveire (2006) noted that improvisation is a valuable teaching tool. Afolabi and Adeleke (2010) identified non-availability, inadequacy and non utilization of learning materials as a result of teacher’s poor knowledge as factors responsible for the use of lecture method. They recommended that both students, teachers, parents, Parents/Teacher Association, government and philanthropist’s shouldbe involved in improvising instructional materials for the teaching and learning in schools. Therefore, Ogbondah (2008) advocated for of teachers’ resourcefulness and also encouraged them to search for necessary instructional materials through local means to supplement or replace the standard ones. Oso (2011) also agreed that the best way for teachers to make use of their manipulative skills is to improvise so as to achieve their lesson objectives at least to a reasonable extent.Jekayinfa (2012) also identified the importance of improvisation of instructional materials as making learning concrete and real, substitutes one thing for another, allows the students to participate in the production of materials, economical and more teacher-student resource oriented. Abdu-Raheem (2014) submitted that improvisation of locally made teaching aids could assist to improve quality of graduates turn out from schools and standard of education generally. Abdu-Raheem and Oluwagbohunmi (2015) also corroborated the idea that resourceful and skillful teachers should improvise necessary instructional materials to promote academic standard in Nigerian schools. This is why many schools have taken interest in looking at various topics on instructional materials both in the schools and other educational institutions, be it at the lower level or the higher level. Mass failure of students in both primary and secondary schools has partly been traced to the nonuse of instructional materials in primary or secondary schools. These instructional materials include the use of textbooks, real objects, pictures and film strips to mention a few. It has been observed that schools that are called demonstration schools and model schools perform well in external examination than those in the public schools because of lack of these instructional materials. This study therefore sought to look at the effects of instructional materials in some schools in Osogbo Local Government Area of Osun State. The researcher will see how teachers have been using instructional materials and how learners on their own use these instructional materials to aid their learning. Also, the study sought to look at the importance of instructional materials in teaching and learning Government in the schools.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
The study is intended to look at the use of instructional materials in some selected secondary schools. It is also intended to look at the problems confronting the teachers in the use of instructional materials in teaching Government. Also, it will look into the effective use of instructional materials and to assess its importance in the teaching and learning situation.
- PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to examine the effects of instructional materials in teaching and learning of government in senior secondary schools, but to aid the effective completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following specific objectives;
- to examine the effect of instructional materials in effective teaching of government
- to ascertain the relationship between the use of instructional materials and students’ academic achievement in government
- to ascertain the impact of instructional materials on student academic performance in government
- to examine the role of instructional materials in influencing the teaching method of government
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;
H0: there is no significant relationship between the use of instructional materials and students’ academic achievement in government
H1: there is a significant relationship between the use of instructional materials and students’ academic achievement in government
H0: Instructional materials do not have any effect in effective teaching of government
H2: Instructional materials do have an effect in effective teaching of government
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is significant as the findings on effective use of instructional materials in teaching government in secondary schools will be significant. The researcher will provide useful guide towards effective use of instructional materials which will encourage more and better use of instructional materials in teaching of government in schools. The purpose of the study is to see and bring into limelight, the problems encountered in acquisition of instructional materials. It is also to know how effective these materials are and how much is gained from the use. Again, the study will enable future researchers to continue from where this researcher has stopped and to give new forms of modalities and improvement. Another purpose of this study is to serve as information for other academic researchers.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION TO THE STUDY
The scope of the study will be to cover five selected secondary schools in Osogbo Local Government. In the cause of the study, there are some factors that limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
- c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the top management personnel of the schools makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
This is the result got from the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of government as a subject in the secondary schools.
Instructional materials may be things or objects brought in to play to emphasize clearly or visualize the instructions given in the class. Instructional materials act as supplement to normal process of instruction. This makes teaching and learning of Government easier in the secondary schools.
This is the art of imparting knowledge to students.
This is a permanent change in behaviour that results from experience. It is also the act of acquiring information taught to the students.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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