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EFFECT OF INTERNET-BASED TOOLS ON PERFORMANCE OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN BIOLOGY

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ABSTRACT

 

The study is designed to find out the effect of internet – base tools on performance of senior secondary school students in biology in Kaduna state. The study try to establish the computer skills of students to determine if there is any significant difference in the performance of learners when exposed to the traditional approach and those exposed to learning Biology with the Internet – Based Learning Tools. The research design is experimental study. Four schools were randomly selected, two schools were urban while the other two were rural schools, and two also out of the selected schools were private schools while the two were public schools in order to determine school type and location. One of the schools was boys only while the other school was girls only to determine gender, 100 students were used for the experimental study, twenty five students each in a class. The pre-test post-test control group design was carried out. The experimental group was exposed to a blend of three approaches which includes direct teaching with the internet tool integration, while control group had the traditional method. The t -test analysis of the post test revealed that there is a significant difference in the performance of learners taught using the Internet

 

– based learning tool. The use of the Internet – Based Learning Tools can make a significant difference in the performance of learners in Biology as compared to the traditional chalk and talk approach. Those in urban areas have more advantages than those in rural areas in terms of availability and easy access to the internet facilities which enhances their performance. Both there is no differences in the performance of both Male and Female Biology Students with the integration of Internet –based learning tools. Subject combination has great influence on the performance of the students with the integration of the internet – based learning tools. The Internet – Based Learning Tools has significant effect on the students performance in Biology teaching, the education stake holders in Kaduna state are to ensure that learning becomes fully blended with the Internet – Based Learning Tools.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

TITLE PAGE

 

DECLARATION

 

CERTIFICATION

 

DEDICATION

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

 

ABSTRACT

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

 

ABBREVIATIONS

Page

 

i

 

ii

 

iii

 

vi

 

v

 

vi

 

vii

 

viii

 

x

 

xi

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION  
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Objectives of the Study 6
1.4 Research Questions 7
1.5 Hypotheses   7
1.6 Significance of the Study 8
1.7 Basic Assumption 8
1.8 Scope of the Study 11

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE  
2.1Introduction 13
viii  

 

2.2. Theoretical Framework 13
2.3. Nigerian Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Policies 18
2.4. Nigerian Biology Curriculum  
2.5 Biology Education Curriculum 25
2.6 Teaching Methods used in Biology Teaching 26
2.6.1 Activity/Child Centered 26
2.6.2 Discovery Method 29
2.6.3 Lecture Method 30
2.6.4 Demonstration Method 31
2.7. Early use of ICT in Teaching 32
2.7.1. Overhead Transparencies 33
2.7.2 Flip Chart 34
2.7.3 Chalkboard 37
2.7.4 Laboratory Experimentation 39
2.7.5 Overhead Projector 43
2.7.6 Television 45
2.7.7 Computer 47
2.7.8 Compact Disc Read – Only Memory (CD-ROM) 49
2.8 The Internet 50
2.8.0 History of the Internet 53
2.8.1 Ways to Connect to Internet 57
2.8.2. The Advantages of the Internet 58
2.8.3 Disadvantages of the Internet 65
2.9 Internet Based Learning Tools 66
2.9.1 The Google Scholar. 71
  ix  

 

2.9.2 Khan Academy 73
2.9.3 Skype 74
2.9.4 Wikipedia 76
2.9.5 Encarta Premium 77
2.9.7 Cengage Leaning Inc 79
2.9.8 Dassault  Systems 81
2.9.9. ERASYSAPP 81
2.9.10 Bio – Interactive 82
2.9.11 Agilent Technologies 83
2.9.12 Autodesk 85
2.9.13 Slide R ule 85
2.10 Internet Based Learning Tools used in Senior Secondary Schools in  
  Kaduna State, Nigeria 88
2.10.1 Encarta Premium 88
2.10.2 Wikipedia 88
2.10.3 Google Scholar 89
2.10.4 Skype 89
2.10.5 Khan Academy 89
2.11 Empirical Studies 90
2.12 Summary 100

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY  
3.1 Introduction 101
3.2 Research Design 101
3.3 Population 102
  x  

 

3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique 102
3.5 Instrumentation 103
3.5.1 Validity of the Instruments 103
3.5.2 Pilot Study 104
3.5.3 Reliability of the instruments 104
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection 105
3.7 Procedure for Data Analysis 106
3.7.1 Timeline for Data Collection 106

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR:  DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS  
4.1 Introduction 108
4.2. Response to Research Questions. 108
4.3 Hypotheses Testing 113
4.4 Summary of Research Findings 119
4.5 Discussion of Findings 119

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS  
5.1 Introduction 121
5.2 Summary 121
5.3 Conclusion 123
5.4 Recommendations 123
5.4.1 Suggestions for Further Studies 125
5.4.2 Contribution to Knowledge 126
5.6 References 128
5.7 Appendix A 140

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.1          Background to the Study

 

 

The introduction of western education in Nigeria in the early 19th century has brought with it variety of teaching methods and instructional materials. Instructional materials were meant to assist the teacher in presenting the lesson in a manner that will be well understood by students. Indeed part of a teacher’s professional responsibility is to prepare his lesson properly, and major component of writing the lesson is the selection of appropriate instructional materials to ensure effective lesson delivery. Some of the initial teaching aids used by the teachers included maps, charts, flip charts and physical objects. In the corvette of time and with the development in technology, there was the introduction of slides, transparencies, audio materials and videos. Mhlolo (2007), says, this enhanced the ability of teachers to teach more effectively and for the students to learn in more concrete ways.

 

The importance of curriculum materials in teaching and learning Biology in secondary schools cannot be over emphasized, some of the importance includes; stimulation of the learners interest, making teaching and learning more productive, making teaching become more concrete, real and immediate, contributing to performance analysis, stimulation of problem solving in students and helping to clarify complex events and situation among others.

 

According to National Policy on Education (2009), one of the aims and objectives of teaching Biology in secondary schools is the ability to communicate the skills of Biology to ensure that

 

1

 

 

Biology students acquire the process and skills of Biology as a science subject. This cannot be effectively achieved unless students are exposed sufficiently to practical work and laboratory experiments. The creative use of curriculum materials by teachers has increased the probability that the students will learn more, retain better what they learn and improve the performance of the skills that they develop. The aims of secondary Education according to the NPE are to equip the students to live effectively in the modern age of science and technology. The Biology Curriculum recognizes the utilization of discovery approach in the teaching and learning of Biology. This involves demonstration, individual practical work, group discussions, field work, project work and building models.

 

Nwagwu (2006), says, over the years, West/North Television (WNTV) was established in order to reduce teaching deficiencies in subject such as sciences, provide examples of good teachings, helped to upgrade the general quality of classroom instructional activities and enrich contents. Biology theorist and practitioners have always made concerted efforts to facilitate students learning through each phase of learning Biology by enhancing the quality of learning experiences through the use and proper application of instructional materials to each of the Biology phases of learning.

 

Aladejana (2008), says, Nigeria witness a gradual improvement on the quality of teaching with the introduction of computers, later the internet based learning tools were introduced into the Educational system especially in the field of science which has changed the way teaching and learning takes place in our secondary schools today. The invention of the telegraph, telephone, radio, and computer set the stage for unprecedented Integration of capabilities. The Internet based learning tool is the wholesome integration of modern telecommunications equipment and ICT resources into the educational system. Internet based learning tools as aspect of ICT is relatively new in Nigeria’s educational system. It is a departure from the use of conventional tools for curriculum implementation.

2

 

 

The introduction of the computer opened another opportunity for the Biology Education sector; most secondary schools in Nigeria today are using the computers as learning tool, the World Wide Web created a wider platform for the teaching and learning of Biology in secondary schools. Today there are several instructional materials and learning tools that have made the Classroom to become boarder less. Yusuf (2005), says, the primary purposes of curriculum implementation are to achieve the objectives of instruction and achieve retention and transfer of knowledge. Evoh (2007), says, Internet based tools are used as instructional medium that permits alternative approaches to curriculum implementation. With the internet based learning teachers no longer need to be worried about whether an instructional material is appropriate for the lesson to be taught, its relevance, simplicity simplification of concepts and the accuracy of the teaching aids, because the materials are seen as in real life, real situation and the information is quiet accurate.

 

Portrayal (2010), says, the professional teachers development opportunities are easily provided where the pedagogy of learning and teaching of both the relevant Biology topics and its digital representations are available with the Internet – Based Learning Tools, then teachers see the immediate pedagogic benefit to students learning even with the weakest link of the class. . On the other hand interactive technology encourages active learning; hence teaching should no longer center around transfer of content from teacher to student. With the advent of Internet based learning, the features, functions, physiology of different organs, life styles of different animals, ecology etc could be seen life and in action, while some are viewed as Animation, simulations etc as seen in real life, answers that students’ assume is impossible to be answered are answered.

1.2          Statement of the Problems

 

 

Biology has been taught at schools for years, the teachers have been facing a problem on how to get students to fully understand Biology. Many students perceived Biology as too wide and too difficult to comprehend, while the Biology textbooks are too difficult to read and understand which has contributed to the fluctuating results of Biology in NECO and WEAC. The call for application of internet- based learning tools in Biology teaching in Kaduna State Senior Secondary Schools is to infuse and inject efficiency and effectiveness in Biology curriculum implementation. The effective integration of internet- based learning tools in the implementation of Biology Curriculum and its pedagogy require the schools readiness, and the proficiencies of its teachers. However even the developing countries like Nigeria; internet -based learning is challenged with problems of inadequate and functional computers, absence of the internet itself can be as a result of it high cost of installation and maintenance, problem of power supply has consistently been poor in Nigeria. Lack of trained Biology Teachers on ICT to effectively utilize the Biology soft ware’s for effective teaching of Biology. Inadequate infrastructures and poor environment for internet based learning to take place effectively among others. The current method of teaching Biology in our secondary schools may be too static and boring due to lack of adequate teaching aids, the internet has made provision of different categories of the teaching aids required for every topic in Biology, the question is how effective are those Internet – Based Learning Tools in assisting the performance of the student’s in Biology? Despite the above mentioned problems secondary schools in Kaduna State employ some of the internet based learning tools for teaching of Biology. The study therefore intends to find out the effectiveness of the Internet – Based Learning Tools employed by the Kaduna State Senior Secondary Schools in the teaching of Biology.

 

5

 

1.3         Objectives of the Study.

 

To guide this study, the following objectives are formulated:

 

 

 

  1. determine the effect of Internet-Based Learning Tools on the Performance of Senior Secondary School Students in Biology in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

 

  1. find out the impact of Internet – Based Tools on Performance of Senior Secondary School Students taught Biology Internet-Based Learning Tools with respect to gender difference in Kaduna State, Nigeria

 

  1. examine the extent to which Internet-Based Learning Tools affect Senior Secondary

 

School Students’ Performance in Biology as a result of school location difference in Kaduna State, Nigeria

 

  1. verify the effect of Internet-Based Learning Tools on the Performance of Senior Secondary School Students in Biology with regard to school type in Kaduna State, Nigeria

 

  1. determine the extent to which Internet-Based Learning Tools affect Senior Secondary School Students’ Performance in Biology as a result subject combinations difference in Kaduna State, Nigeria

 

1.4         Research Questions

 

In order to provide the research with sense of direction or focus, the following research questions

 

are put forward:

 

 

  1. What is the effect of the use of internet – based learning tools on the performance of senior secondary school students in Biology in Kaduna State?

 

  1. Are there any gender differences in the performance of students taught Biology using Internet – Based Learning Tools ?

 

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  1. Are there any differences in the performance of students from rural and urban centers taught Biology using Internet – Based Learning Tools in Kaduna state?

 

  1. Are there differences in the performance from private and public schools taught Biology using the Internet – Based Learning Tools in Kaduna State?

 

  1. Does the use Internet – Based Learning Tools affect the performance Students of

 

Arts or science subject in Biology in Kaduna state?

 

1.5          Hypotheses

 

 

The following Hypotheses are postulated and will be tested in the course of study:

 

 

Ho1: there is no significant difference between performances of students taught Biology with

 

traditional method, and those taught with Internet – Based Learning Tools.

 

 

Ho2: there is no significant difference between performances of boys and girls taught Biology with

 

the Internet – Based Learning Tools.

 

 

Ho3: there is no significant difference between performance of students from rural location and

 

those from urban location taught Biology with Internet – Based Learning Tools.

 

 

Ho4: there is no significant difference between performances of students in private school and

 

public school taught Biology using Internet – Based Learning Tools.

 

 

Ho5: the use of Internet – Based Learning Tools has no significant effect on the performance of

 

Senior Secondary Schools Students of different Subject combination.

 

 

1.6          Basic Assumptions

 

 

  1. Internet – based Learning tools are available and utilized in some senior secondary schools in Kaduna state.

 

 

 

7

 

 

  1. The performance of both boys and girls taught Biology with the use of the Internet – Based Learning tools is the same with no indication of Gender difference.

 

  1. Students’ from the Urban area taught Biology using the Internet – Based learning Tools is commensurate to the performance of the students from the rural area.

 

  1. Both Private and Public Secondary School Students perform the same after being taught Biology with the Internet – Based Learning Tools.

 

  1. Arts, commerce and science Students perform the same and well with the integration of Internet – Based learning Tools in the teaching and learning of Biology

 

1.7         Significance of the Study

 

The need to promote stimulates, encourage, motive and foster effective teaching of Biology in Senior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State. Over the years, stakeholders of Education in Kaduna State like the State education board, NGO’s on educational development, Education Trust Fund, Parents Teachers Association, philanthropist, Teachers Associations, Ministry of Education and other governmental and non- governmental associations too numerous to mention are worried over the poor academic performance of students in science subjects. The inculcation of Internet Based Technology Tools into the teaching of Biology will be of great importance. Teachers are the implementers of the curriculum in the classroom and it’s expected that their sound knowledge of the use of Internet and how to use the Internet tools in teaching and learning of Biology would not only go a long way in achieving this goal, but also improve the standards of Biology education towards achieving excellence.

 

This study is therefore significant to the major beneficiaries who are the students by improving their understanding of the Biology as a subject, because they see things as in real life. It will as well increase their motivation and inculcate in them the spirit of research and give them the freedom to expose their inner talent which will also be beneficial to the country’s development, the use of the internet – based learning tools will give the students the opportunity to communicate and interact

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