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| Format: Ms Word | 1-5 Chapters | Table of Content|


Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE

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This study investigated the impact of online newspaper readership on newspaper production process in Nigeria using The Nation’s Newspaper of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, as a case study. The study used a sample of 110 members of staff of The Nation’s drawn through the stratified random sampling. Data was collected from respondents by means of a questionnaire which was responded to on a scale of “Yes”, “No”, and “Not Aware”. The validation of the instrument was arrived at using the pre-test and post-test method. Three research questions were presented and answered by means of simple percentage. The study found that online newspaper readership: impacts the newsgathering stage of newspaper production in Nigeria in that reporters in newspaper organizations that publish both print and online versions are not only cognizant of online news readers in the course of newsgathering, but also make use of user-generated contents (UGC) from online news readers as sources of information; does not impact the news editing stage of newspaper production in Nigeria as editors neither require reporters to file reports in ways that make such reports suitable for online reading nor do they shorten or re-write stories to be published online having regard to the universally accepted difference between online and print newspaper readers; does not impact the number of hard copies printed daily by Nigerian newspapers as the reduction of the number of print copies that goes into daily circulation has not been found to be attributable to online readership of newspaper; and does not impact operating revenue of Nigerian newspapers in that it has not been found to directly affect advertising revenue or sale of newspaper print copies. The study recommended that Nigerian newspaper organizations should take full advantage of the internet technologies in all phases of newspaper production as well as develop a business model that will compensate for the free readership of online news on newspaper websites. Suggestions for further studies were made.

















TABLE OF CONTENT                               

Title    Page





Table of Content

List of Tables


1.1       Background of the study

1.2       Statement of problem

1.3       Objectives of the study

1.4       Research questions

1.5       Significance of the study

1.6       Scope of the study

1.7       Limitationof the study

1.8       Definitionof terms

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW                                

2.1       Introduction

2.2       Theoretical framework

2.3       Review of concepts

2.3.1    The concept of online newspaper in Nigeria

2.3.2    Online newspaper readership in Nigeria

2.3.3    The Nation’s Newspaper

The Nation’s online

2.3.4    Newspaper production process in Nigeria

2.3.5    Impact of online newspaper readership on newspaper production


Negative impacts

2.4       Review of studies

Online newspaper readership and newsgathering/editorial  process

Online newspaper readership and print demand

Online newspaper readership and newspaper production revenue

2.5       Summaryof the review

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                            

3.1       Introduction

3.2       Study design

3.3       Area of study

3.4       Populationof study

3.5       Sample and sampling technique

3.6 Description of data gathering instrument

3.7 Validity and reliability of data gathering instrument

3.8 Method of data presentation and analysis


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Data presentation


4.3 Discussion of findings



5.1 Introduction


5.2 Summary of findings

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Recommendations


5.5 Suggestions  for further  studies




Appendix A

Appendix B





The latest trends in media technologies have changed the entire system of newspaper production and circulation in Nigeria. Both the print and broadcast media are affected in one way or the other by the technology revolution (Kowet, 2000). Information is the primary input as well as the final output of Newspaper industry. It collects raw information and converts it into categorized, defined and useful pieces of information (McLuhan, 1994). Therefore, it will not be an exaggeration to say that the radical changes brought in the realm of Newspaper production and circulation through technologies (ICTs). Recent technology revolution in the media industry is bound to affect Newspaper more than any other industry. The adoption and absorption of media technology are being carried out in newspaper industry by bringing efficiencies in all the functional wings including newsgathering, production, editorial and marketing so as to gain competitive advantage (Indo American Print summit, 2008).Media technologies are now used not just by press but increasingly by reporters and editors also in Nigeria. Its benefits are being recognized at every point of the entire supply chain of newspaper production (Harlan & Garry, 1999). The impact of media technologies on every aspect of Newspaper production, on the product, the production process, circulating, marketing and distribution in Nigeria cannot be overemphasized.According to Chris (2001), technology development and absorption in Newspaper industry improved the printing process and reduced the operating time of editorial desks. The profuse use of online content and facilities has led to dominance of many-to-many model over one-to-many model of information collection. The individual or the department entrusted for the collection of information and news (Journalist) could gather information as per own and others convenience.The wide range of editing, page making, database, photo imaging, and mixing software provided cutting-edge facilities to newspaper business which could now streamline and integrate intra-wings functions within a newspaper. The use of telefax, websites, online database, web-based information sites, and online readers and newsmakers, made the cumbersome job of information collection and reporting easier than ever before.The facilities of emails, personal blogs, and online discussion forums further have widened the canvas of information as the news of remotest areas could be retained within the headlines. Media technology made its presence felt in all quarters of news quarters. It not only impacted the functioning of newspapers and various departments but even gave birth to new avatar, the e-paper. Limitation of circulation of print versions, reach and accessibility, cost of newsprint abetted by unfathomable vista of Internet encouragedNewspapers companies Nigeria to launch electronic version of editions. Thus, media technology made the newspaper available literally with a click of mouse anywhere anytime. However the e-paper is not a substitute to the print version rather a complement to the same.There is a complete transformation from the days when reporters used to file report, which had to be cleared and screened by band of sub-editors, followed by final checking of story by editor himself/herself and even an army of trained proof readers. Whereas now the reports are being filed online or on Local Area Network, read, crosschecked and edited electronically, saving time and money.Media technology evolved because people from all walks of life needed help to understand the world around them (Kowet, 2000). Throughout history, newspapers have excelled at collecting, recording, circulating and distributing information at many different levels and geographic locales. As they evolve in light of technological change, newspapers need to embrace that mission anew. In fact, defining what is news is now more critical than ever. And it is their ability to do this within the context of new technologies that is the key to newspapers’ survival.Today, the use of advanced commercial printing machinery has also enabled newspaper industry to print copies with well-defined properties, capable of producing high precision graphic prints along with other direct mail printing services, the modern digital printing machines are printing 30 thousand and above copies per hour as against 3000 to 4000 copies per hour published by old printing press.According to Tony (2004), the incorporation of digital inkjet proofing and colour management has enabled newspapers to use distributed printing sites to produce product while minimizing the possibility of colour loss and poor print quality. Decentralized printing distribution has been given a further boost by the introduction of inserting and distribution technologies that help in newspaper customize and produce targeted products ensuring effective circulation. In the past, traditional newspapers could only tell stories through text and images only, but now the advent of new media technologies allows journalists to tell stories in multiple channels. This increases the credibility of the story. It also allows users (readers), to become active participants in information creation. In other words, it turns users from been passive recipients of information to active participants of information production and circulation. This study is focused on The Nations newspaper which was launched in Lagos Nigeria on Monday July 31, 2006 and it is well circulated all over the nation.


The processes of using manual in newspaper production and circulation over the years have been of major concern to newspaper industry. Manual production and circulation processes of Newspaper not only in Nigeria but the world over takes more time and more workers than the modern process but yet produces less number of copies. This cumbersome process affects the financial base of the industry as more workers and time are required to produce less number of copies which in most cases also fail to meet both the deadlines and the number demanded for. The dependency on manual production also created tedious jobs for reporters, correspondents, editors, copywriters, as well as circulation personnel. This study is aimed at ascertaining the role of media technology in ameliorating these challenges. The adoption of media technologies, have altered the manual production and circulation processes. Technology development and absorption in Newspaper industry has improved the printing process and reduced the operating time of editorial desk. The journalist, correspondent or the editorial department entrusted for the collection of information and news (Journalist) could gather information while in the office without much inconvenience using the modern technology.

Though new technology has introduced some extra costs, it has brought benefits in return. Portable computers mean that reporters working away from the main office can now deliver stories quickly, simply and reliably using a modem to gain access to internet, rather than dictating them to a typist or a rewrite desk as in the case of manual production and circulation. The ability to submit stories and communicate with editors electronically saves time for most journalists, particularly freelancers, who often delivered their finished work by hand in the past. Now they can easily work for publications far from office, without worrying about the time and cost of delivering completed work.


The general objective of this study is to analyze the effect of new media technology on newspaper production and circulation in Nigeria with focus on the Nations newspaper while the following are the specific objectives:

  1. Determine the impact of online newspaper readership on newsgathering and editing;
  2. Examine the impact of online newspaper readership on the number of hard copies of the printed daily; and
  3. Determine the impact of online newspaper readership on operating revenue.
  4. 4 Research questions

This study will be undertaken to answer the following research questions:

  1. Does online newspaper readership impact newsgathering and editing?
  2. Does online newspaper readership impact the number of print copies?
  3. Does online newspaper readership impact operating revenue?

The following are the significance of this study:

The findings from this study will educate managers of newspaper industries and the general public on the effects of media technology on newspaper production and circulation in Nigeria. It will also educate them on the effectiveness of the media technology and the problem associated with media technology with reference to newspaper production and circulation.

This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effects of media technology on newspaper production and circulation in Nigeria, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.


This study is limited to The Nation newspaper in Nigeria. It will also cover the effects of media technology on newspaper production and circulation in Nigeria.


Media: the main means of mass communication (especially television, radio, newspapers, and the Internet) regarded collectively.

Technology: the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes.

Newspaper: a printed publication (usually issued daily or weekly) consisting of folded unstapled sheets and containing news, feature articles, advertisements, and correspondence.

Internet: The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link billions of devices worldwide.



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Account Name: Emmanuel Idorenyin Samuel.