EFFECT OF PARENTAL SUPPORT ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN GSSS JEKADAFARI AND G.G.C DOMA WITHIN GOMBE METROPOLIS
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The study examines the effect of parental support on academic performance of some selected secondary school in GSSS Jekafari and G G.C Doma within Gombe State. Four research questions and four null hypotheses were formulated by the researchers to guide the study. The study adopted an ex-post facto design. A sample of 300 senior secondary I and II students were randomly selected from some selected secondary schools in the study area. The sample consisted of 150 male and 150 female students. The instruments were validated by two experts in the faculty of Education. The findings of the study indicate that parental support has significant effects on the academic performance of secondary school students. Also the results of the study have equally shown that gender exercises significant influence on both academic performance and self-concept of students in the study area. One outstanding recommendation is that positive parent- child interaction should be initiated and intensified from birth till maturity. Consequently, we suggest that further research be conducted in areas like “Family issues and its effects on academic performance of students in secondary schools in Nigeria.
1.1 Background of the Study
The parent as central figures in the homes which a child is raised plays a significant role in the behavior and academic performance of a child. Regrettably, many parents nurse the conviction that teachers have extraordinary powers to achieve academic transformation on the part of the students. Those parents fail to realize that no student can attain good academic heights without the right parental encouragement, understanding and support (Templar, 2008). This partly explains why students’ academic achievement in many schools is on the decline. One of the aims of education is to achieve positive change in the self-concept and academic achievement/performance of an individual. One could be said to be doing well if there is steady improvement in one’s learning achievement. The generally held notion is that one’s academic progress depends solely on the effectiveness and efficiency of the teachers.
Desmone (1999) postulated that parental support refers to actions taken to accomplish proper adjustment on the part of the children both at home and in the school. Parental support presupposes that children must be protected, supported, guided and assisted to embark on the right course. The young ones might derail socially and academically if left entirely on their own. Adewole (2004) posited that parental support implies the assistance rendered to young ones by their parents, sponsors, pastors, mentors and significant others in order to achieve worthwhile goals.
Performance is could be seen as a completion of a task with application of knowledge, skills and abilities. While academic performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals. Cumulative GPA and completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor’s degrees represent academic achievement. Marsh and Martin (2011) viewed achievement as the attainment of one’s objective.
Hunt (1997) perceived academic achievement as how well a student is accomplishing school tasks and studies. The author explained that the term refers to any outstanding performance by a student. Hunt went further to adduce that a student’s score, ranking in the class and grade point average (GPA) level are among the well- known indicators of academic achievement. Academic achievement is a learning feat accomplished in schools by completing classes, maintaining good grades and getting high scores on tests. It is a term used in school when a student does well in academics. Academic achievement is the out-come of education, the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved stated educational goals (Okpara and Smith, 2001).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is believed by many educationists that students perform poorly owing to the fact that students do not receive adequate parental support in terms of parent-child discussion and interaction, regular medical check-up, academic assistance at home, balanced diet and stimulating learning environment.
It might be pertinent to mention that there is a pervading aura of inferiority complex among students in the study area. Majority of them lack exposure and this might be attributed to their upbringing and nature of social environment. Several researchers and some reviewed literature have indicated links between parental support and academic performance. Some of these studies have stressed the importance of purposeful parental support in enhancing students’ self-concept and their academic performance. Equally, research evidences have shown that purposeful parental support promotes self-reliance, confidence and composure, cheerfulness, academic excellence, courage and boldness. The researcher hereby, somehow, claims that no investigation within the researcher’s reach has been carried out in the area of study relating to the influence of parental support on academic performance of students. It is this gap that the researchers intend to fill in this wide gap.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effect of parental support on academic performance of some selected secondary schools.
Specifically, the study seeks to:
- Examine the effect of parental support on secondary school students’ self-concept.
- Determine the influence of parental support on secondary school students’ academic achievement.
- Find out the influence of gender on secondary school students’ self-concept
- Ascertain the influence of gender on secondary school students’ academic performance.
1.4 Research Questions
To guide this study, the following research questions are posed:
- Is there any significant influence of parental support on the self-concept of secondary school students?
- Is there any significant influence of parental support on the academic performance of secondary school students?
- Is there any significant influence of gender on secondary school students’ self-concept?
- What is the influence of gender on the academic achievement of secondary school students?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses formulated to guide the study will be tested at 0.05 level of significance.
H0: There is no significant influence of parental support on students’ self-concept.
H1: There is a significant influence of parental support on students’ self-concept.
H0: Parental support has no significant influence on students’ academic performance.
H2: Parental support has a significant influence on students’ academic performance.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be of immense benefit to the following: teachers, parents, educational planners, school administrators, government educational agencies, non-governmental organizations, psychologists and researchers. A teacher cannot perform maximally if he is not conversant with the students’ individual variations, aspirations, their challenges, interests, idiosyncrasies and learning patterns. This is informed by the fact that the teacher understands the natural instincts of the child well and how to assist the individual to acquire knowledge. The findings of this study will enable teachers adopt better teaching techniques. This is with a view towards raising the academic achievement of the students as well as to enhance their self-concept. The study will sensitize parents on the need to manifest stimulating supportive behaviour through parent-child discussion and assistance in tackling take-home assignments. This might exercise a substantial impact on the self-concept and academic achievement of students. This work will enable educational planners and school administrators promulgate and implement policies that involve parents contributing towards raising the learning achievement of students. They will equally be sensitized on the rewarding impact parental support exercises on the self-concept of students. This study will equally serve as reference for future researchers, psychologists and teachers who might wish to carry out further investigation on the topic being researched upon.
1.7 Scope and limitation of the Study
This study will be carried out in some selected private/government secondary schools in GSSS Jekafari and G G.C Doma within Gombe State. The study will include all senior secondary one (SSI) and two (SSII) students in the study area. Specifically, the study will attempt to establish the effect of parental support which will be limited to primary and secondary parental supports. There were some constraints tending to interrupt the flow of this study such as;
Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Respondent Reluctance: In most cases the contacted respondents often feels reluctance over providing required information required by the researcher. This results in finding information where the structured questionnaires could not point out.
Inadequate Materials: Scarcity of material is also a major hindrance. The researcher finds it difficult to lay hands on several required material which could contribute immensely to the success of this research work.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
Effect: is seen in this study as a change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.
Parent: A parent is a caregiver of the offspring in their own species. In humans, a parent is the caretaker of a child. A biological parent is a person whose gamete resulted in a child, a male through the sperm, and a female through the ovum. Biological parents are first-degree relatives and have 50% genetic meet.
Parental support: Parental Support. Parental support is a key dimension of effective parenting, incorporating constructs such as nurturing, attachment, acceptance, cohesion and love (Jacob and Leonard, 1994). From: Adolescent Addiction, 2008.
Academic performance: Academic performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals. Cumulative GPA and completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor’s degrees represent academic achievement.
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