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Abstract

This study examined the effect of rural-urban migration on rural economy of Kauru Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to establish the emigrational trend in the study area and its effects on the economy as a whole. The study assessed local residents and migrant’s responses to emigrational trends, category of migrants, reasons for migration and effects of migration on the economy. Data were obtained from 66 non-migrants and 67 migrants that were purposive sampled. 6 villages in the study area comprised the population and also constitute the random sample. The instrument used was a structured questionnaire and interview schedule. Data analyzed revealed that rural-urban migration is as a result of low employment opportunities in the rural areas; inadequate provision of social infrastructure in the rural areas and to escape from the unattractive/dull nature of rural areas. Also, rural-urban migration usually lead to loss of local manpower, fall in agricultural productivity, degeneration of indigenous skill etc. The study recommends that government should decentralize its developmental projects and programmes in order to accommodate the rural areas and attract investors to this region in the near future.

                                         CHAPTER ONE

                                    INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

There are various reasons for the rapid growth of rural urban migration and these reasons vary from country to country. However, the consequences of rural urban migration have similar effects for different countries. Migration is considered as the movement of people from one geographical region to another, which may be on temporary or permanent basis (Adewale, 2005). Although most recent literature now addresses forms of migration beyond the traditional focus on permanent, rural-urban migration, some forms of migration nonetheless remain neglected.

Migration in Nigeria today is high based on the prevailing recession and the reasons for it vary from one person to another depending on the situation that brought about the decision. Migration is a selective process affecting individuals or families with certain economic, social, educational and demographic characteristics. The movement of people from rural to urban areas is a common occurrence in Nigeria. The movement poses some problems in the rural as well as in the urban centre even though; there are benefits derivable from it. In most rural areas, the impact of rural-urban migration was a rapid deterioration of the rural economy leading to chronic poverty and food insecurity (Mini, 2000). These arise mainly due to excessive drain of youth from the rural populace thus leaving only the older and aged members to constitute the labour force of the rural area.

Migration to urban areas is placing increasing pressure on local government’s ability to respond to social service needs of urban populations. This is a worldwide challenge; in 2008 over half of the world’s population will be urban, and in Africa the urban population is set to double between 2000 and 2030 (UNFPA, 2007). On-going migration to urban areas is placing pressure on limited appropriate housing, resulting in increases in the numbers of urban residents now found to reside in informal housing. Informal settlements present a range of health and development challenges to governments, including access to water, sanitation, housing, and adequate health services, including HIV services (Ambert, 2006; Ambert, Jassey, & Thomas, 2007; Thomas, 2006).

Apart from smoothing income flows by providing employment during the agricultural lean season, temporary migration to urban centres is undertaken for increasing disposable income which is then invested in a variety of production and consumption uses. However, the relative importance of migration is highly contexted specific as its effects on the local agricultural economy and poverty reduction is enhanced.

The movement from rural to urban areas makes a negative impact on the quality of rural life especially when such migrants carry away their needed consumption into the city. Migration of young adults from the rural areas also placed a greater burden on the farmers. For farmers to cover the same area of land as when he had extra assistance, he must work much longer hours thus depriving him of some time for leisure or participation in various social activities. The trend of the movement of the rural people into the city has also militated against the economic development in the country.

The development of rural areas constitutes an important sector in any nation’s economy and their rapid development and modernization have gained the attention of policy makers and governments globally. Nyagba (2009) noted that, the most important sector of the Nigerian population is the rural areas. This, according to Ugwuanyi & Emmanuel (2013) is because the rural sector is the major source of capital formation for the country and a principal market for domestic and raw materials for industrial processes. Abah (2010) argued that rural area dwellers have been found to engage in primary economic activities that form the foundation for the country’s economic development. As it is conspicuously apparent from the foregoing, given the national economy, enhancing the development of the rural sector should be central to government and public administration. Regrettable these rural sectors of Nigeria that are vital to the socioeconomic development of the nation are faced with the problem of retard development. The result of the aforementioned is high rate rural-urban migration in Nigeria with its attendant challenges (Adamolekun L, 1993).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

In recent times there are more problems associated with rural urban migration; the impacts of these problems have apparently outweighed the associated benefits. The governments are not aware of the annual internal migration trend, neither most of them know the factors responsible for the movement of rural people into their cities. At the same time, most African governments have little or no knowledge about the problems encountered by the various households in the depressed communities of their cities. This situation has made it very difficult or rather impossible for kaduna state governments including Kauru Local Government Area to plan and deliver the most needed social amenities for their subjects, especially those living in the rural areas to dissuade them from migrating into the city. More so, because of the movement of people from these rural areas, its consequent reduction in population has attracted less attention from the government as some already existing infrastructure facilities may be left non-functional and new ones may not be brought to replace the old ones.

Although, these problems are of larger dimension, pervasive and are continuing unabated, not many governments have launched any regular research programme to monitor the trend of the movement of their subjects on the sustainable basis. Thus the motivation of this study is to examine the effect of rural urban migration on rural economy of Kauru Local Government Area. The study is also meant to assess the consequences of migration on the development of Kauru Local Government Area and the main factors behind the movement of the rural people.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary aim of this study is to examine the effect of rural urban migration on rural economy of Kauru Local Government Area; The specific objectives include to:

  1. Determine the causes of rural urban migration in Kaduna State.
  2. Determine the age bracket at which people mostly migrate to the cities.
  • Find out the sex mostly involved in outmigration.
  1. Find out the consequences of outmigration in the underdevelopment of the areas.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. Does rural urban migration has no influence on the social well-being and rural economy status of Kaduna State?
  2. Is there any significant relationship between rural urban migration and rural economy status in Kaduna State?
  3. Do the educated ones migrate more often than the uneducated ones?
  4. Can industrial hazards in the urban area discouraged migration?
  5. Does migration affect labour supply?

1.5. Research Hypotheses

Since research preposition are meant to test the validity of assumption, the following null and alternate hypotheses are stated for the purpose of this study.

H0: rural urban migration has no influence on the social well-being and rural economy status of Kaduna State.

H1: rural urban migration has an influence on the social well-being and rural economy status of Kaduna State.

H0: there is no significant relationship between rural urban migration and rural economy status in Kaduna State.

H2: there is a significant relationship between rural urban migration and rural economy status in Kaduna State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

It is expected that at the end of the study the findings will provide fresh and much needed inputs on the possible effects of rural-urban migration on rural economy to the ministry of finance, financial institutions, policy makers, planners and institutions of learning too. Specifically; the study will help to educate the mind of the individual, policy makers and the government to see the need to formulate policies for integrated rural development to check rural-urban drift in our society.

It will tackles the problems that force people to leave their rural origin, by bridging the development gap between urban and rural areas through the introduction of sound rural development strategies and effective urban management. It will also help to provide information for planners and policy makers to formulate and implement population redistribution or migration policy. The significance of the study would help the youth and entire society to know the negative and positive effects on rural-urban migration on economic development and how to proffer solutions to the problems. The findings will be of importance to researchers and students intending to work on related topics.

1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of this study centers on the effect of rural urban migration on rural economy, particularly the kind of migration that we are principally interested in in this study is rural to urban migration, which is the movement of people from country side to city areas. Therefore, the researcher centered to cover mainly Kauru Local Government Area in Kaduna State. This research encountered some constraint in the course of the study which includes:

Time factor: The time allocated to the researcher during the period of the study was limited coupled with lectures and exams.

Financial constraint: the finance at the disposal of the researcher during the course of the study wasn’t sufficient enough to run the expenses of the research work.

1.8 Definition of Terms

Rural-urban migration: Some migrations are forced, voluntary, permanent and temporary, International and regional. The type of migration that we are principally interested in in this unit is Rural to urban migration, which is the movement of people from countryside to city areas.

Migration: This means the movement of people from one place to another. Teriba (1982) sees migration as the movement of people from one civil division to another.

Settlement: This is a place where people live.

Emigration: It is the movement of people out of a country.

Immigration: This is the movement of people into country.

Net migration: The difference between the number of immigration and emigrants.

Immigrant: These are people that move into a country.

Emigrants: These are people that engage in the movement out of a country.

Economy: An economy is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.

Economic development: Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people. Consequently, as economist Amartya Sen points out, “economic growth is one aspect of the process of economic development”.

Social environment: The social environment, social context, sociocultural context or milieu refers to the immediate physical and social setting in which people live or in which something happens or develops. It includes the culture that the individual was educated or lives in, and the people and institutions with whom they interact.

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