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The aim of this study is to examine how school environment influence students’ academic performance. The main objective of the study is to analyse how school facilities, teachers and environment significantly affect secondary school students’ academic performance in Nigeria. Descriptive Survey Research design was used in which data from 133 respondents was collected using self-administered questionnaire from selected secondary schools within Ado Ekiti. Simple random sampling technique was used to sample the respondents. The data was analyzed using simple percentage. The result of the study indicated that students from a school with adequate facilities, good teachers and favorable environment perform well than those from schools with fewer facilities, unqualified teachers and the less enabling environment. Finally, recommendations were given to parents, teachers, policy makers and educational administrators.
- Background of the
Generally in the whole world, particularly in Nigeria, education has been considered to be the corner – stone for development. It forms the basis for literacy, skill acquisition, technological advancement and ability to harness human and material resources towards the achievement of societal goal, (FRN, 2004). Education is very important in any given society. It is a process by which abilities and capabilities of individual are developed. These abilities might be physical abilities, emotional abilities, social abilities and intellectual abilities. It is the actualizing of human potential so that the individual can become something more than what he was before. According to Ugwuanyi (2003) education is the process by which society establishes to assist the young to learn and understand the heritage of the past, participate productively in the society and contribute meaningfully for the development of the society. Emeka (2008) citing Kneller (2000) sees education as a process by which any society through schools, colleges, universities and other institutions deliberately transmit knowledge, values and skills from one person to another. As a result of deregulation in Nigerian education, the system of education has two main interest groups – public education and private education. Byoung-suk, K. (2012) stated that children need safe, healthy and stimulating environment in which to grow and learn. During the school year, children can spend 6 to 8 hours at the school where the environment plays a significant/critical role in child development. More of the time is spent in the school yard or travelling to and from school. This condition requires careful planning and designing to optimize experiences that support education, health and stewardship. Therefore, the school environment is of paramount importance in shaping and reshaping intellectual ability. However, supportive and favourable school environment enriched with enough learning facilities, and favourable climate makes students more comfortable, more concentrated on their academic activities that resulted in high academic performance. The forces of the environment begin to influence growth and development of the individual right from the womb of his mother. The educational process of development occurs in physical, social, cultural and psychological environment. A proper and adequate environment is very much necessary for a fruitful learning of the child. The favorable school environment provides the necessary stimulus for learning experiences. The children spend most of their time in school, and this school environment is exerting influence on performance through curricular, teaching technique and relationship (Arul Lawrence A.S. 2012). However, educational institutions are intimately linked with society as a whole. They are the temple of knowledge and agent of social change and transformation. The general condition of our schools, colleges and universities are a matter of great concern to the nation. It plays a significant role in the development of the personality of the students. As the students spend most of their life at school, the school environment is highly responsible for the inculcating of high values into them. For example, the Kothari Commission (1964-1966) posited that “The destiny of Indian is now being shaped in her classroom” (p.2). This quotation indicated the significant role a school environment plays in a student in particular and nation in general. Therefore, student being a backbone of every nation need a healthy school environment that support them to perform well Public education is the pillar or backbone of society which opens the door of equal educational opportunity to all citizens. It is a public owned property which attracts public attention constantly. According to Ukeje in Akpa, Udoh and Faghamiye (2005): Public school is concerned with the acquisition of appropriate skills, abilities and competencies of both mental and physical nature as equipment for the individual to live in this society, and acquisition of a relevant and balanced knowledge of facts about local and world phenomena. (P. 12-13) Public schools can also be seen as those schools controlled neither by individuals nor by private interest or agencies but by those who represent the society as a whole. In other words public schools are those schools which are supported and controlled by the government of the state or nation. Private schools are those schools that are not administered by local, state or national government, which retain the right to select their student body and are founded in whole or part by charging their students tuition rather than with public funds. This means that the school established by the missionaries, individuals and voluntary organizations belong to this group. According to Hernes (2001) United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the world Bank, private educational institutions are those that are not operated by a public authority, but are controlled and managed by a 3 private body or board of governors not selected by a public agency on selected by public vote. The institution may be run by or operated by nongovernmental organizations (NGOS) or business enterprise.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Academic attainment is an important parameter in measuring success in students. Observations and reports have shown that success or high academic achievement has become a herculean task to accomplish by students in recent times. Poor academic performance were recorded both at the secondary and tertiary levels of education in Nigeria (Essien, 2012). This poor performance of students at all levels in educational institutions in Nigeria has attracted much criticisms from all and sundry from time immemorial. Soyinka (2012) observed the decline in the academic performance of students in post primary institutions and maintained that secondary school system in Nigeria needed restructuring. He went further to say that academic standard had fallen drastically and the quality of secondary schools graduates being produced is questionable and subject to re-examination.
It becomes necessary to find out the causes of such poor performance in our secondary schools. Though, these poor performances have been attributed to a lot of indicators such as students’ factors and the home factors; the school factors and other exogenous variables are thought to have also determine students’ academic success in schools. The interest of this research has been activated by the fact that all the effort made by education stakeholders in the State to improve the academic performance of secondary school students has not yielded the desired result. it is against this backdrop that this study is conducted to examine whether the following school variables (school facilities, teachers qualification, school location, class size and school type) determines academic success of a child in secondary schools.
- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to ascertain the effect of school environmental variable on the academic performance of students in Ado Ekiti. But for the successful completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following objectives;
- To ascertain the effect of environmental variables on students’ academic performance
- To evaluate the relationship between school location and students’ academic performance
- To ascertain the impact of class size on student academic performance
- To evaluate the role of school environment in improving the quality of education in Ado Ekiti
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0: Environmental variables do not have any effect on students’ academic performance.
H1: environmental variable do have a significant effects on students’ academic performance.
H02: there is no significant relationship between school location and students’ academic achievement.
H2: there is a significant relationship between school location and student academic achievement
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
At the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to the stakeholders of academic sector in Ado Ekiti as the findings will guide them in policy formulation on skull location and other relevant variables
This study will help educational planners and policy makers to see the need to equip all schools equally despite their location in terms of provision of infrastructural amenities, improved teachers quality and quantity and also regular supervision of the teaching of Economics in our schools irrespective of their locations. It will help teachers to upgrade themselves so as to improve their own educational standard as well as their skill and approaches. It will help the educators to understand better about those school factors that may contribute in the academic success of students in secondary schools. The findings will update literature on parental factors that affect the performance of students in secondary schools. The findings will be of benefit to students as some recommendations made will serve as sources of motivation to them. The findings will provide a framework for further research and thereby adding to the existing literature on the subject matter. Finally, it is hoped that when this research work is completed, the learners, parents, teachers, ministry of education, curriculum planners, government and the entire society will benefit from the findings by formulating policies that will bridge the gap between children of high status and that of the low status in respect of their academic performance in school.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the effect of school environmental variables on academic performance of student’s in Ado Ekiti but in the cause of the study the researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
- c) FINANCE: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
School variables: These are school factors that exert either positive or negative influence on students.
Academic performance: Academic performance is the outcome of education — the extent to which students achieved their educational goals. It is commonly measured by examinations or continuous assessment.
School Location: A place where a school is situated, which could be urban area or rural area.
Class Size: This means the number of students in a class which varies considerably from school to school.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc. Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter. Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.