EFFECT OF SCHOOL FARMS AND LABORATORY ON EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE IN EDO STATE
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TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
The study was conducted to assess the effect of school factors on academic achievement of agricultural science student in senior secondary schools in Edo state. Three research questions and hypotheses guided the study Among the major findings of the study were that the school farm gives agricultural orientation to children especially those without agricultural background and increases pupils interest in and love for agriculture. It was therefore recommended that every secondary school whether rural or urban should have both crop and animal farms which should be used primarily for teaching purpose. In addition, curriculum planners and implementers should take cognizance of the school farm as a critical instructional requirement for affective prosecution of the Primary Agricultural Programme. Finally, teachers of agriculture should lead the way in developing pupil’s interest in agriculture by being proud of their subject and by owning and managing their own farms.
1.1 Background of the study
School farm is also a component of the school activities which has link with the birth of a more productive agriculture. It is a selected plot of land in the school environment where students’ carryout practical agriculture both in crop production and animal husbandry Akinsorotan, O.A. (2007). This he said helps the students to acquire knowledge and practical skills in agriculture and agricultural related opportunities. Williams, et al. (2005) outlined some of the benefits of school farm to students to include:
1) Generating circumstances for students to market agricultural products.
2) Providing students with supervised occupational experience in agricultural productivity.
3) Encouraging the use of records and reports similar to those used in agriculture.
Also, Kochnen, T. (2004) stated that school principals rated the school farm as very important in giving students practical experience, promoting agricultural skills by giving the students opportunities to carryout demonstration plots and conduct agricultural experiments among others. Generally, agricultural science is a subject in secondary school that is being taught by both male and female teachers. Kochnen, T. (2004) stated that most school farms are faced with lack of tools, equipment and other capital items. Lack of seeds, feeds, fertilizer and other operating suppliers, inadequate training for teachers to use the farm for instructional purposes. In addition, lack of staff personnel to run the farm was seen as the most serious problem facing the school farm. Closely followed by lack of updated equipment and machinery are inadequate state of the art facilities. This came next as a problem rated as the highest serious problem by almost 60% of the principals (interviewed). Other problems include lack of agricultural inputs, lack of production of agricultural goods for internal consumption Francisco, et al (2003).
Fuatai, L. (2000) stated that problems associated with school farm are; lack of adequate teachers, lack of laboratory facilities, lack of equipment, small amount of land and attitudinal problem of students, the host community and the unserious attitude on the part of the administrators. Poor funding of the vocational agriculture in secondary schools, keeping abreast with development in the field of vocational agriculture and communication of such development to students and the administration of vocational agriculture by non-specialists are problems facing the school farms Ikeoji, et al. (2007). More so, inability of the curriculum to transmit employable skills to students, lack of required materials and resources for vocational agriculture delivery and lack of interest on the part of students pose as a problem to school farm. Laboratory is a room with specific equipment specially built for teaching by demonstration of theoretical phenomenon into practical terms. Farombi (1998) agreed with the saying that “seeing is believing” as the effect of using laboratories in teaching and learning of science and other science related disciplines as students tend to understand and recall what they see than what they hear or were told. Other studies reported that laboratory adequacy which is a school environment factor affect the performance of students in agricultural science (Raimi, 2002 &Adeyegbe, 2005). In terms of academic achievement, Soyibo and Nyong (1984) have shown that schools with well-equipped laboratories have better results in the School Certificate Science Examinations than those that are ill equipped. Writing on the situation of our secondary schools, Okoli (1995) reported that laboratories have become shelves of empty bottles of chemicals. The practical work ought to be carried out by individuals either in science laboratories, farm or in classes. It is an established truth that an object handled impresses itself more firmly on the mind than the object merely seen from a distance or in an illustration. Thus practical work forms an important feature in any science and mathematics course (UNESCO, 2008). Research findings have shown that the success of any educational endeavor rests on the availability of physical facilities, especially the school building. Writing on its importance, Olutola (1982), noted that the availability of the school building contribute to good academic performance as they enhance effective teaching-learning activities. A study done by Zinnah and Adam (2003) declared that many of the traditional ways of teaching are no longer fully adequate unless correctly accompanied with appropriate instructional strategies. Comparing schools in developing countries with what is obtained in industrialized world, in terms of facilities, materials, utilization, and provision, Akintayo (1997) noted that schooling in developing countries like Nigeria takes place under condition that are very different from those in developed countries like Great Britain. In another development, Aliyu (1993) as cited by Johnson (1998) found that there was no significant difference between students in secondary schools with and without adequate instructional facilities. While commenting on the teaching of Agricultural Science in Nigerian secondary schools, Egun and Badmus, (2007) study revealed that the subject was taught in the classroom theoretically without practical work and the use of relevant instructional materials. As a result of the poor method of teaching, students see the subject as difficult, hence, they develop negative attitude towards it. Similarly, Egun and Badmus (2007) in their research on reducing teachers’ instructional difficulties in identified content area of Agricultural Science discovered that lack of relevant instructional materials is among other reasons for teachers’ difficulty in teaching certain content areas of Agricultural Science syllabus. Schools are social institutions in which groups of individuals are brought together to share educational experiences and such interactions may breed positive or negative influences on learners. In this study, school background was characterized by location of school (urban or rural), school ownership (public or private schools), school academic status and school financial standing. The secondary school system of education assumes the role of training and producing students for tertiary institutions and manpower for national development and world of work. It is in the importance of manpower development in the quality of academic achievement that successive administrations at the national state and local government levels in Nigeria have been allocating a significant part of their annual budget to education sector. Parents too are not left out as they struggle to see their children perform well in the school by giving them all the necessary financial and moral support “Atanda, etal. (2006)”. The teaching of Agricultural Science in Nigerian secondary schools needs to be properly handled. Agriculture contributes to the nation’s economic development, hence, the need to be taught thoroughly if it is to meet the educational and economic development. Moreso, Agricultural science is one of the subjects in junior and senior secondary schools; and as a vocational subject, it cannot be taught effectively without the use of appropriate instructional materials”. The curriculum of the senior secondary school levels consist of three major concepts of production, protection and economic learning was emphasized in the curriculum so that the students should be able to produce food and other agricultural products for themselves and their community. A series of activities were suggested in the curriculum to ensure the development of psychomotor skill in Agricultural Science by the students. The teaching of Agricultural science education was initiated in 1989. The goal of helping students to acquire scientific knowledge and the required skill may not have been achieved due to poor study and irregular habits and effective practical lesson among secondary school students in Agricultural science “Emeya, S. and Ojimba, T. P. (2012)”. In Nigeria there are many factors influencing the ability of students to cultivate assessment and efficient of school factors “Oyedun, O. S. (2000).”. “Smith, M. (2012)” emphasized the important of environmental influence as a major factor in the development of student’s. According to “[Okolie, U. C, Elom, E. N. (2014)]” secondary school students in public school often come from economically poor and average income families. The families face various problems causing emotional disturbance among their children which may result in poor academic performance. This singular factor has caused serious setback to academic achievement status to secondary school students. The teachers as the facilitators of knowledge should provide the necessary and appropriate school factors that will enable the students to learn in order to enhance their academic achievement in Agricultural Science.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Secondary school agricultural education programme consists of two main components, namely: classroom/laboratory instruction and supervised agricultural experience. Classroom curriculum and laboratory exercises provide students with foundation knowledge in agricultural practices, preparing them for careers in food, fiber and natural resource industries. But most of the secondary schools in the state has ignore the relevance of laboratory and farm exercise in the teaching and learning process as most of the student are adamant to the teaching of agricultural science practical and most of the teachers do not have the practical knowledge to impact on the student. It is on this premise that the study becomes pertinent.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to examine the effect of school farms and laboratory on effective teaching and learning of agricultural science in Edo state. But to aid the completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following specific objectives;
- i) To examine the impact of school farm on the teaching quality of agricultural science in secondary schools in Edo state
- ii) To examine the relationship between agriculture laboratory and school farm on student academic performance in agriculture in Edo state
iii) To examine the effect of agricultural science laboratory on student learning habit in agricultural science
- iv) To ascertain role of school farm on student academic performance in Edo state.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;
- i) Is there any significant relationship between agriculture laboratory and school farm on student academic performance in agriculture in Edo state?
- ii) Does school farm play any role on student academic performance in Edo state?
iii) Does agricultural science laboratory have any effect on student learning habit in agricultural science?
- iv) Is there any impact of school farm on the teaching quality of agricultural science in secondary schools in Edo state?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to the management of secondary schools in Edo state as the finding of the study seek to establish the difference between school with school farm and agricultural laboratory. The study will also be of great importance to the ministry of education as the study will aid in policy formation to guide the establishment of school farm and agricultural laboratory in secondary schools in Nigeria, the study will also be of importance to researchers who intend to embark on a study in a similar topic as the study will serve as a reference point to further research. Finally, the study will be of great importance to researchers, academia’s students, teachers and the general public as the findings of the study will contribute to the pool of existing literature on the subject matter and also contribute to knowledge.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the effect of school farm and laboratory on effective teaching and learning of agricultural science in Edo state. But in the cause of the study, there are some factors that limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
- c) Finance: Limited Access to required finance was a major constrain to the scope of the study.
1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
A School Farm is a farming initiative setup by school authorities in order to enable agricultural students acquires practical farming skills to complement knowledge gained in the classroom.
A laboratory is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed
Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field of biology that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture.
Teaching is an instruction or delivering a particular skill or subject or something that someone tells you to do.
Learning is the process of acquiring new, or modifying existing, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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