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Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE
Integration of Information, Communication, and Technology (ICT) will assist teachers to the global requirement to replace traditional teaching methods with a technology-based teaching and learning tools and facilities. In Nigeria, ICT is considered as one of the main elements in transforming the country to the future development. The Ministry of Education, through the latest Education Blue print (2013-2025), insights the importance of technology-based teaching and learning into the schools’ national curriculum. This study aims to analyze teachers’ perceptions on effectiveness of ICT integration to support teaching and learning process in classroom. A survey questionnaire was distributed randomly to the total of 200 teachers from 10 public secondary schools in Lagos, Nigeria. The data for this quantitative research were analyzed for both descriptive and inferential statistic using SPSS (version 21) software. The results indicate that ICT integration has a great effectiveness for both teachers and the students. Findings indicate that teachers’ well-equipped preparation with ICT tools and facilities is one the main factors in success of technology-based teaching and learning. . It was also found that professional development training programs for teachers also played a key role in enhancing students’ quality learning. For the future studies, there is a need for consideration of other aspects of ICT integration especially from management point of view in regard to strategic planning and policy making.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
- Background of the study
Nigeria like other developing countries is still in the initial stages of integrating ICT in teaching and learning process in the education sector. Though it is limited by a number of barriers, there are many factors influencing the use of ICT to make teaching and learning effective in schools of learning in Nigeria. ICT is an electronic means of capturing, processing, storing, communicating information. The use of ICT in the classroom teaching and learning is very important for it provides opportunities for teachers and students to operate, store, manipulate, and retrieve information, encourage independent and active learning, and self-responsibility for learning such as distance learning, motivate teachers and students to continue using learning outside school hours, plan and prepare lessons and design materials such as course content delivery and facilitate sharing of resources, expertise and advice. In this 21st century, the term “technology” is an important issue in many fields including education. This is because technology has become the knowledge transfer highway in most countries. Technology integration nowadays has gone through innovations and transformed our societies that has totally changed the way people think, work and live (Grabe, 2007). As part of this, schools and other educational institutions which are supposed to prepare students to live in “a knowledge society” need to consider ICT integration in their curriculum (Ghavifekr, Afshari & Amla Salleh, 2012). Integration of Information, Communication, and Technology (ICT) in education refers to the use of computerbased communication that incorporates into daily classroom instructional process. In conjunction with preparing students for the current digital era, teachers are seen as the key players in using ICT in their daily classrooms. This is due to the capability of ICT in providing dynamic and proactive teaching-learning environment (Arnseth & Hatlevik, 2012). While, the aim of ICT integration is to improve and increase the quality, accessibility and cost-efficiency of the delivery of instruction to students, it also refers to benefits from networking the learning communities to face the challenges of current globalization (Albirini, 2006, p.6). Process of adoption of ICT is not a single step, but it is ongoing and continuous steps that fully support teaching and learning and information resources (Young, 2003). ICT integration in education generally means technology-based teaching and learning process that closely relates to the utilization of learning technologies in schools. Due to the fact that students are familiar with technology and they will learn better within technology-based environment, the issue of ICT integration in schools, specifically in the classroom is vital. This is because, the use of technology in education contributes a lot in the pedagogical aspects in which the application of ICT will lead to effective learning with the help and supports from ICT elements and components (Jamieson-Procter et al., 2013). It is right to say that almost all ranges of subjects’ starts from mathematics, science, languages, arts and humanistic and other major fields can be learned more effectively through technology-based tools and equipment. In addition, ICT provides the help and complementary supports for both teachers and students where it involves effective learning with the help of the computers to serve the purpose of learning aids (Jorge et al., 2003). Computers and technology does not acts as a replacing tools for quality teachers but instead they are considered as an add-on supplements needed for the better teaching and learning. The need for ICT integration in education is crucial, because with the help of technology, teaching and learning is not only happening in the school environment, but also can happen even if teachers and students are physically in distance. However, ICT integration is not a one-step learning process, but it is a continual process of learning that provides proactive teaching-learning environment (Young, 2003). ICT can be used in various ways where it helps both teachers and students to learn about their respective subject areas. A technology- based teaching and learning offers various interesting ways which includes educational videos, stimulation, storage of data, the usage of databases, mind-mapping, guided discovery, brainstorming, music, World Wide Web (www) that will make the learning process more fulfilling and meaningful (Finger & Trinidad, 2002). On the other hand, students will benefit from ICT integration where they are not bounded to the limited curriculum and resources, instead hands-on activities in a technology-based course is designed to help them to stimulate their understanding about the subject. It also helps teachers to design their lesson plans in an effective, creative and interesting approach that would result in students’ active learning. Previous researches proved that use of ICT in teaching will enhance the learning process and maximizes the students’ abilities in active learning (Finger & Trinidad, 2002; Jorge et al., 2003; Young, 2003; Jamieson-Procter et al., 2013). Hermans, Tondeur, Van-Braak, and Valcke (2008) have identified three main stages for ICT to be highly valued and regarded by the teachers; integration, enhancement and complementary. Integration approach is about implementing right use of ICT in particular subject area that involved complex concepts and skills to improve student’s achievement and attainment. Besides, the review of curriculum is also needed so that only related ICT resources and appropriate software will be installed for the main aims and objectives of curriculum to be achieved. Enhancement approach is about using ICT to give great emphasis on the topic introduced. For instance, Microsoft PowerPoint can be used to present the topic in a very innovative and creative way that will lead into discussion and exchanging ideas and thoughts. Finally, complementary approach is when the ICT is used to aid and support the student’s learning. This approach allow students to be more organized and efficient in which they can take obtain the notes from computer, submit their works by email from home as long as they meet the deadline and looking for information from various sources provided online to fulfil the task given to them (Hermans et al., 2008) . Technology-based teaching and learning can make many changes in school that requires for proper planning and policy making. Researchers and policymakers must both have the same insight about the future plan. Dudeney (2010) noted that national ICT policies can serve several crucial functions. They provide a rationale, a set of goals, and a vision of how education systems run if ICT is integrated into teaching and learning process, and they are beneficial to students, teachers, parents and the general population of a given country. Ministry of Education Malaysia has formulated three main policies for ICT in education. The first policy insists on all students are given opportunity to use ICT. This is aimed to reduce the digital gap amongst the schools. The second policy focuses on the role and function played by ICT in education. Besides that, another policy stressed on the use of ICT for accessing information, communication and as productivity tool (Chan, 2002). However, infrastructure and facility of ICT is then needed to supply to the schools throughout the nation. A key factor in use of ICT is sufficient computer labs and ICT equipment. This is to ensure that subject teachers are easily access to ICT tools whenever needed (Hennessy, Ruthven, & Brindley, 2005). Lack of adequate ICT equipment and internet access is one of the key problems that schools specifically in rural areas are facing now. For example, results of a research show that in Kenya, some schools have computer but this could be limited to one computer in the office only. Even in schools with computers, the student-computer ration is high. In addition, the report continues revealed that the schools with ICT infrastructure are supported by parents’ initiative or community power (Chapelle, 2011). In most schools, technical difficulties sought to become a major problem and a source of frustration for students and teachers and cause interruptions in teaching and learning process. If there is lack of technical assistance and no repair on it, teachers are not able to use the computer for temporarily (Jamieson-Proctor et al., 2013). The effect is that teachers will be discouraged from using computers because of fear of equipment failure since they are not given any assistance on the issue. Türel and Johnson’s study (2012) revealed that technical problems become a major barrier for teachers. These problems include low connectivity, virus attack and printer not functioning. However, there are a few exceptions. Schools in the countries like Netherland, United Kingdom and Malta have recognized the importance of technical support to assist teachers to use ICT in the classroom (Yang & Wang, 2012). This versatile instrument has the capability not only of engaging students in instructional activities to increase their learning, but of helping them to solve complex problems to enhance their cognitive skills (Jonnasen& Reeves, 1996). Pernia (2008) defines ICT as technologies used to communicate in order to create, manage and distribute information. She adds that a broad definition of ICTs includes computers, the internet, telephone, television, radio and audio-visual equipment. She further explains that ICT is any device and application used to access, manage, integrate, evaluate, create and communicate information and knowledge. Digital technology is included in this definition as services and applications used for communication and information processing functions associated with these devices. Generally, three objectives are distinguished for the use of ICT in education (Plomp et al, 1996):
(i) The use of ICT as object of study; refers to learning about ICT, which enables students to use ICT in their daily life.
(ii) The use of ICT as aspect of discipline or profession; refers to the development of ICT skills for professional or vocational purposes.
(iii) The use of ICT as medium for teaching and learning; focuses on the use of ICT for the enhancement of the teaching and learning process Drent&Meelissen, 2007).
It is a fact that teachers are at the centre of curriculum change and they control the teaching and learning process. Therefore, they must be able to prepare young people for the society in which the competency to use ICT to acquire and process information is very important. Several studies argue that the use of new technologies in the classroom is essential for providing opportunities for students to learn to operate in an information age. It is evident, Yelland (2001) as argued that traditional educational environments do not seem to be suitable for preparing learners to function or be productive in the workplaces of today’s society. She claimed that organizations that do not incorporate the use of new technologies in institutions cannot seriously claim to prepare their students for life in the twenty-first century.
This argument is supported by Grimus , who pointed out that “by teaching ICT skills in educational institutions the students are prepared to face future developments based on proper understanding” (p. 362). ICT originally is applied to serve as a means of improving efficiency in the educational process . Furthermore, it has been shown that the use of ICT in education can help improve memory retention, increase motivation and generally deepens understanding [Dede, 1998)]. ICT can also be used to promote collaborative learning, including role playing, group problem solving activities and articulated projects [Forcheri&Molfino, 2000]. ICT allow the establishment of rich networks of interconnections and relations between individuals. Some authors maintain that technology has the power to change the ways students learn and professors teach [Kozma, 1999]. However, the effectiveness of ICT despite all the accrued benefits needs proper studies especially in developing countries like Nigeria where a lot of factors is still militating against the use of ICT.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Basic Technology as a subject has been affected by ICTs, which have undoubtedly affected the teaching and learning of the subject (Yusuf, 2005). A great deal of research has proven the benefits to the quality of teaching and learning (Al-Ansari, 2006). ICTs have the potential to innovate, accelerate, enrich, and deepen skills, to motivate and engage students, to help relate school experience to work practices, create economic viability for tomorrow’s workers, as well as strengthening teaching and helping schools change (Davis and Tearle, 1999;). However, this research will examine the effectiveness of ICT on teaching and learning Basic Technology.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives of this study:
(i) To ascertain the level of ICT use on teaching and learning Basic Technology
(ii) To examine the effectiveness of ICT on teaching and learning of Basic Technology.
(iii) To identify the factors limiting the use of ICT in teaching and learning Basic Technology.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
(i) What is the level of ICT use on teaching and learning Basic Technology?
(ii) What is the effectiveness of ICT on teaching and learning of Basic Technology?
(iii) What are the factors limiting the use of ICT in teaching and learning Basic Technology?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: ICT use is not effective on teaching and learning of Basic Technology.
H1: ICT use is effective on teaching and learning of Basic Technology.
H0: ICT use does not have a significant impact on teaching and learning Basic Technology
H2: ICT use does have a significant impact on teaching and learning Basic Technology
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of the study is centered on the students, teachers, educational planner, administrators, government and the general public. There are a lot of benefits to derive on the effective use of ICT in teaching and learning of Basic Technology. The findings of the study will encourage teachers and students to develop skills and competencies in ICT technologies for teaching and learning in schools. Curriculum planners will be made to design curriculum that will implement effective approaches to ICT technology driven education at the 21st century in schools syllabus contents which will improve students’ skills and competencies for employability and self sustainability. The study will provide improved performance in terms of teaching and learning abilities of teachers and. It will also promote conveniences and flexibility of students through self paced and time, as well as increased access to best quality instructors through sharing of knowledge across borders, via online internet connectivity.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is on the evaluation of the use of ICT materials in schools with a view of determining if it is effective for teaching and learning Basic technology. Therefore, the study will cover the secondary schools in Edo State while the teacher and students of senior secondary schools will be involved in determining the effectiveness of ICT on teaching and learning of Basic Technology.
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
- c) FINANCE: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Information and communication technology (ICT) is another/extensional term for information technology (IT) that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information
Teaching and learning
In the course of teaching, teachers too learn from students just as students learn from their teachers. And when teaching and learning become shared experiences, it becomes evident that it is a two-way process
Technology is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: “principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science
- ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.