|TABLE OF CONTENTS|
|Table of Contents||ix|
|List of Tables||xii|
|List of Appendices||xiii|
|List of Abbreviations||xiv|
|Operational Definition of Terms||xvi|
|CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION|
|1.1||Background to the Study||1|
|1.2||Statement of the Problem||4|
|1.3||Objectives of the Study||5|
|1.7||Significance of the Study||7|
|1.8||Scope of the Study||10|
|CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE|
|2.3.1||Concept of Language Teaching Method||20|
|2.3.2||Communicative Language Teaching Methods||34|
|2.3.3||Concept of Language and Communication Skills||37|
|220.127.116.11. Writing Skills||42|
|2.3.4||Differences between communicative language teaching method and|
|2.3.5||Concept of Hausa Language||45|
|2.3.6||Objective and Content of Senior Secondary School Hausa|
|2.3.7||Concept of academic performance.||47|
|2.3.8||Competence and Performance||48|
|CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY|
|3.3||Population of the Study||62|
|3.4||Sample and Sampling Technique||63|
|3.5.1||Validity of Instrument||64|
|3.5.3||Reliability of the Instrument||65|
|3.6||Procedure for Data Collection||66|
|3.7||Procedure for Data Analysis||69|
|CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSIONS|
|4.2||Description of Study Variables||70|
|4.3||Response to Research Questions||71|
|4.5||Summary of Major Findings||76|
|4.6||Discussions of Findings||76|
|CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS|
|5.4||Suggestions for further Studies||81|
|5.5||Contribution to Knowledge||81|
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Communicative Language Teaching: Is an approach to language teaching that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of study.
Academic performance: Refers to students‟ academic success which is measured by their cumulative grade point average (CGPA) at senior secondary school in Kaduna State.
Secondary School: Is a school which provides secondary education, between the ages of 11 and 16 or 11 and 19 after primary school and before higher education.
1.1 Background to the Study
The success of all school programmes depend on many factors. One of which is teaching method in other words, the strategy of imparting knowledge to the learners determine in no small measures to the success of teaching activity. Thus teaching methods remains an integral part of school curriculum. Teaching method comprises the principle and methods used for instructions, the most commonly used teaching method may include grammar translation method, audio-lingual method, oral method, direct method, recitation memorization or combination of these.
The choice of teaching method or method to be used depends largely on the information or skills that are being taught, and it may also be influenced by the aptitude and enthusiasm of the students. Method is what the professional teachers utilize to maximize student learning. Effective methods of teaching stimulates students‟ interest in a topic, which is the basis for achieving the desired objectives, it may discourage their initiatives and curiosity (Yerima, 2007). There are techniques that encourage the development of creativity, ability, competence provide experience not easily secured in any other way. There is variety of teaching methods and approaches for teachers to choose according to the situation, especially in language teaching method which includes audio-lingual method, oral method, functional notional method, situational language teaching, direct method, and communicative language method. Some of these method are more appropriate for a particular group than others, for instance, some are good for younger learners and some for older students.
The development of communicative language method was also prevailed by new academic ideas. In Britain, applied linguistics began to doubt the efficiency of situational language teaching, this was partly in response to Chomsky‟s insights into the nature of language. Chomsky had shown that the structural theories of language could not explain the creativity and variety evident in real communication. In addition, British applied linguist such as Christopher candling and Henry widowson to see that a focus on structure was also helping language students, they saw a need for students to develop communicative skill and functional competence in addition to mastering language structure, they saw the need to focus in language teaching on communicative proficiency rather than on mere mastery of structures. Communicative language teaching is best considered an approach rather than a method because it has in many places improved the academic performance of students, a recent meta-analysis suggested that mental curiosity (as measured by typical intellectual engagement) has an important influence on academic achievement in addition to intelligence and conscientiousness. Parents academic socialization influence students‟ academic performance by shaping students‟ skills, behavior and attitude towards school, parents influence students through the environment and discuss parents have with their children, academic socialization can be influenced by parent socio-economic status, highly educated parents tend to have more stimulating learning environment (Chem, 2012).
Although a reasonable degree of theoretical consistency can be discerned at the levels of language and learning theory, at the levels of design and procedure, there is much greater room for individual interpretation and variation than most methods permit. It could be that one version among the various proposals for syllabus models, exercise
types, and classroom activities may gain wider approval in the future, giving communicative language teaching a status similar to other teaching method. On the other hand, divergent interpretations might lead to homogenous subgroups. Communicative language method appeared at a time when British language teaching was ready for a paradigm. Situational language teaching was no longer felt to reflect a methodology appropriate for the seventies sand beyond. Communicative language teaching appeared to those who sought a more humanistic approach to teaching, one in which the interactive processes of communication received priority. The rapid adoption and implementation of the communicative approach also resulted from the fact that it quietly assumed the status of orthodoxy in British language teaching circle, receiving the saction and support of leading British applied linguists, language specialists, publishers, as well as institutions such as the British council (Richards, 2001).
Hausa language curriculum spells out seven broad objectives to be achieved at the end of its implementation (FGN, 2004). The curriculum is designed specifically for students studying Hausa language as (L1); this is after due consideration of the aims of Nigeria language policy, as well as problem that may emanate from the teaching of Hausa as a first language (L1). It is the aim of the curriculum that every child should learn how to communicate effectively in Hausa language, using standard and acceptable Hausa, and also to prepare him to be able to read and write without difficult within a short time, particularly on book reading, newspaper and magazines and prepare him with the basic skills in writing short stories plays and poems.
Abbas (2001) indicates that there are hues and complaint that teachers of languages department (Hausa included) are still accustomed to conventional methods of
teaching especially the lecture and storytelling methods. The study confirmed that the negative attitude of students toward Hausa language is as a result of poor strategies in teaching. It‟s against this background that the researcher decides to find out the effects of communicative language teaching method on senior secondary Hausa Language students performance in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Because it‟s assumed that only communicative language can solve the above issues.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Educational administrators and planners are very much concerned about students‟ failure in SSCE in Hausa Language. This may be attributed to so many factors, some may attribute it to students‟ factors which include lack of keen interest in the subject and so they do not pay much attention to it, it might also be due to lack of instructional materials in our secondary schools to adequately acquaint students with the theory and practice of Hausa language. The prime factors that likely affect students‟ performance in Hausa language is teacher factor, personality, or their competence in the subject matter the teaching methods that are used to impart the knowledge, skills and competence to the student is not adequately used by the teachers.
Researchers such as Abbas (2001) and Zaruk(2000), also indicates that there are hues and cries that teachers of languages, (Hausa language) are still accustomed to conventional methods of teaching especially the lecture and storytelling methods. Studies have confirmed that the negative attitude of students towards Hausa language is as a result of poor teaching strategies. It has also argued that Hausa language teachers do not support the effective handling of the subject to boost the academic performance of their students. However, one of the leading causes of students‟ poor performance in Nigeria as
reported by various studies conducted by educationists‟ has to do with the instructional methods used by teachers, which are inadequate to bring about desired level of achievement and classroom participation in both male and female students. Some of the methods used by teachers are expository and make students to become very massive. Other studies also found that many Nigerian teachers mostly used conventional lecture method that centers‟ on the teacher, textbooks, the chalk board. Under this arrangement, the lecture is seen as a disseminator of knowledge, the knower of the answers and is seen as a disseminator of knowledge, the knower of the answers and a lecturer who heavily relies on textbooks as the only available instructional materials, conveys facts and procedures to students and hardly encourages students to engage in practical and creative learning activities. Therefore, this work set to find out the effects of communicative language teaching method on student achievement in Hausa with a view to exploring its potentials for improving student performance. The implication of this problem lies in the fact that, if this problem continuous to prevail, it may decline the level of students studying the language as the area of specialization. It is against this background that the researcher intends to undergo a research on the effect of communicative language method on senior secondary Hausa Language student‟s performance in Kaduna state with a view of providing information that could facilitate and enhance effective teaching and learning of Hausa language.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this study are to:
- Determine the effects of communicative language teaching method on senior secondary Hausa Language students‟ performance in Kaduna state.
- Ascertain the performance of rural and urban student taught Hausa language using communicative language teaching method in senior secondary school in Kaduna state.
- Examine the performance of students taught manner of articulation using communicative language teaching and conventional method in senior secondary school in Kaduna State.
1.4 Research Questions
The study was guided by the following questions.
- What is the effects of communicative language teaching method on senior secondary Hausa Language students‟ performance in Kaduna state?
- How does the performance of rural and urban students taught Hausa language using communicative language and conventional methods differ in senior secondary school in Kaduna State?
- What is the difference between the performance of students taught manner of articulation using communicative language teaching and conventional method in senior secondary school in Kaduna State?
- Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were formulated for the study.
- There is no significant difference in the effects of communicative language teaching on senior secondary Hausa Language students‟ performance language in Kaduna State.
- There is no significant difference in the performance of rural and urban students taught Hausa language using communicative language teaching method in senior secondary schools in Kaduna State.
- There is no significant difference in the performance of students taught manner of articulation using communicative language teaching and conventional methods in senior secondary schools in Kaduna State.
- Basic Assumptions
The study, effects of communicative language teaching methods on senior secondary Hausa Language students‟ performance in Kaduna State, assumed that:
- Students who learnt Hausa language through communicative method are likely to achieve higher grade than those taught with conventional method.
- Conducive learning atmosphere and communicative method is capable of influencing student academic achievement in teaching Hausa language.
- There is need to use innovative teaching method such as communicative method to see if there is improvement in student achievement in Hausa language.
1.7 Significance of the Study
This study as the title suggests “Effects of communicative language teaching method on senior secondary Hausa Language students‟ performance in Kaduna State” is of great importance to many stakeholders in education, especially to government, curriculum experts, teacher and students or learners.
Government would find this study very significant in the process of policy making in the educational enterprise. In other words, information from this study would assist government to make informed decision in the area of effects of communicative language teaching method on senior secondary Hausa Language students‟ performance in Kaduna State.
Curriculum planners are also curriculum experts and they are also known as instructional coordinators, they have variety of duties related to educational curriculum. Some of which are assessing and evaluating educational programs, selecting textbooks, training teachers and sometimes develop curriculum, this research will be of benefit to the planners by providing them with information on how effective communicative language teaching method is, so as to boost the innovative potentials of the educational system, and to provide information in planning for the students and teachers of Hausa language who could be among the actual implementers of the subject; the outcome of the study will also enable the curriculum planners to know the problem and challenges of communicative language teaching method so as to find the possible measures to address such constraints.
Also, information from this study would assist the curriculum expert to be informed in the area of effects of communicative language teaching method on senior secondary Hausa Language students‟ performance in Kaduna state. Teachers would find this research of importance in the process of teaching because classroom teacher form the “cornerstone” in implementing the curriculum. He is the main force and the last person that ensures any curriculum is implemented according to specification. It is the classroom teacher who decides on what to teach, at what time, even when some kind of teaching
scheme may have been prepared in advanced for him, he interprets the syllabus and breaks it into teaching schemes and lessons plans. In other words, information from this study would assist the teachers to make improved in the area of effects of communicative language teaching method on senior secondary Hausa Language students‟ performance in Kaduna state.
Students or learners would find this study of importance in the process of learning; learners form the focus of any teaching. They are also partners in implementing the curriculum. As a teacher teaches the student they provide feedback to the teacher on the effectiveness of his methods and approaches to teaching. It is on the basis of such feedback that a teacher decides on whether to continue, review or completely change his strategies of teaching. The information contain in this study would assist the students or learners to make informed decision in the area of effects of communicative language teaching method on senior secondary Hausa Language students performance in Kaduna state.
Finally, teaching and learning is a step further in the advancement of education. Therefore this study is expected to be of help to the Hausa language teachers in improving teaching and learning process in secondary schools. It is also hoped that it will motivate them to be more creative and more interested in using communicative language method so as to make the teaching and learning of the language rich and lively at all time. In addition, it is also hoped that this survey would help the school administrators and the policy makers in Kaduna state and federation at large to improve their services to the schools if the recommendations given by the researcher will be implemented. Moreover, it will also help the school administrators in understanding various problems affecting the
teaching of languages, especially Hausa language so as to make necessary corrections as the future of our youth depends on the background we are able to provide for them and it is on this background that they are going to be developed.
1.8 Scope of the Study
This study investigated the effects of communicative language teaching method on student performance in Hausa language in senior secondary schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The zone comprises of Zaria, Sabon Gari, Soba and Giwa local government areas. The students of senior secondary schools (SS II) used as subject; and also the study is limited to four selected senior secondary schools in Zaria Zonal Education. Two schools being experimental group while two served as the control group.