EFFECTS OF DEMONSTRATION TECHNIQUES ON REMEDIAL READING OF JSS STUDENTS
| Format: Ms Word | 1-5 Chapters | Table of Content|
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This study examined effect of Demonstration Technique on Remedial reading of JSS students with a view to determining whether demonstration technique can impact positively on the reading performance of remedial readers. The population of this study consists of all the 512 JSS one students at the two selected Junior Secondary Schools in Katsina State. Fifty remedial readers were sampled from each of the two schools making a total of one hundred students. Fifty students were used for the control group and another fifty remedial readers for the experimental group. The instrument used for the study was National Common Entrance Examination in English Language for the pre-test and post-test for both the control and experimental groups. Treatment was given to the experimental group using demonstration techniques. Four research questions were raised. The research instruments were validated by the supervisor and other experts in language teaching. A pilot study was conducted using test re-test method yielding 0.82 reliability. The hypotheses of the research were tested via t-test based on analysis of the students‘ actual performance using the statistical package for social science (SPSS). From the result, it was observed that teaching using demonstration techniques is relatively more effective for remedying reading problems in students judging from the mean performance of the students on word recognition (15.88) against the pre test mean of 6.10. Vocabulary development an increase from (5.90 to 6.50), Phonemic discrimination (10:74 to 17.28) and ability to read group of words witnessing an increase from 7.66 to 15.20 respectively. Thus, based on these findings, it is recommended that demonstration techniques should be used to remedy reading problems in Pupils and students. All the four hypotheses were rejected.
|TABLE OF CONTENTS|
|Table of Contents||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||vii|
|List of Tables- –||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||vii|
|List of Figures –||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||ix|
|List of Abbreviations||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||xii|
|CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION|
|1.1||Background of the Study||–||–||–||–||–||–||1|
|1.2||Statement of the Problem||–||–||–||–||–||–||3|
|1.3||Purpose of the Study||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||4|
|1.6||Significant Of the Study||–||–||–||–||–||–||6|
|1.7||Scope of the Study||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||7|
|CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW|
|2.2||The Concept of Reading||–||–||–||–||–||–||8|
|2.5||Demonstration Techniques and Its Application||–||–||–||13|
|2.5.1 Demonstration Techniques and Word Recognition||–||–||–||13|
|2.5.2||Demonstration Techniques Vocabulary Development||–||–||19|
|2.5.3||Demonstration Techniques and Phonetic Discrimination||–||–||24|
|2.5.4||Demonstration Techniques and Ability to Read Group of Words||–||31|
|2.7.1||The Progressive Demonstration Theory||–||–||–||–||37|
|2.7.2||The Theory of the Instinct of Limitations||–||–||–||–||38|
|2.7.3||The Active/Social Interaction Theory||–||–||–||–||39|
|CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY|
|3.3||Population of the Study||–||–||–||–||–||–||43|
|3.4||Sampling and Sampling procedures||–||–||–||–||–||43|
|3.5||Research Instruments –||–||–||–||–||–||–||44|
|3.6||Validation of Instrument||–||–||–||–||–||45|
|3.8||Procedures for Data Collection||–||–||–||–||–||46|
|3.9||Methods of Data Analysis||–||–||–||–||–||–||46|
|CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF DATA AND ANALYSIS|
|4.2||Data Analysis –||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||51|
|4.5||Summary of Findings –||–||–||–||–||–||–||59|
|4.6||Discussion of Research Findings.||–||–||–||–||–||60|
|CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION|
|5.5||Suggestions for Further Studies-||–||–||–||–||–||67|
|5.6||Limitations of the Study-||–||–||–||–||–||–||68|
|Appendix 1- Research programme plan||–||–||–||–||81|
|Appendix 2- Lesson Plans||–||–||–||–||–||–||82|
|Appendix 3: National Common Entrance Examinations for Pre test||99|
|Appendix 4: National Common Entrance Examinations for Post test||104|
1.1 Background to the Study
The four primary skills of language which any effective language teaching and learning programme centred on are: Listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Listening and reading skills are receptive while speaking and writing are productive skills. (Olaofe, 2012).The importance of reading cannot be over-emphasized as it is ”the most widely employed skill in the literate society” (Ekpunobi, 1989). The other skills as well are very important in language teaching and learning.
The inspiration for this study stems from the experiences gathered as a teacher of English Language at the JSS level of education. Some students at JSS level cannot recognise even two or three letter words like: go, to, is, the, see, bad among others. Many of these students lack the basic vocabulary which will aid them to read. Moreso, some JSS students cannot read group of words.The above challenges necessitated the need for this study on how demonstration techniques can be utilised to enable JSS students recognise words, acquire vocabulary, discriminate phonemes and read group of words. Punctuation problem encountered by these JSS students in an attempt to read is another inspiration for this study. Some of the students read without observing the necessary punctuation marks like comma, full stop, question mark among others.
The study is concerned with finding out whether or not teachers of English Language at the junior secondary school level can effectively use demonstration
techniques to remedy students reading problems in order to enhance JSS remedial readers performance.
Demonstration technique is that which shows the learner how to do a task using sequential instruction with the aim of having learners perform the task independently.(Norton, 2004).When using the demonstration model in the classroom, the teacher performs the task of reading step by step so that learners can eventually be able read on their own.(Norton, 2004).The term remedial reading is concerned with children struggling to read.(Allington,1985).These readers have problem trying to read, as such they generally do not like reading.
There has been international and local concern on remedial reading. Benneth (1998) points out that in the U.S.A., there are some schools where almost everyone learns to read, but others where the situation is so bad and embarrassing to the extent that 40 to 45% of the children who enter public schools each year cannot read on average. The National Assessment of Educational Progress (1983) revealed that over ten million Americans reached the 12th grade without having learnt to read at basic level. Some children in urban high poverty schools read below basic. If America can have such reading problems and they are struggling for the solution, the case in Nigeria is expected to be higher. As such, Nigeria should train teachers on how to teach reading. In Nigeria for instance, some of our students cannot read mere instruction on question paper correctly.
There are complains from Media houses, Ministry of Education (federal and state) about the inability of junior secondary students to read. Teachers and parents too
often complain about the same problem. Most teachers of English Language find it difficult to teach reading at the JSS level. As such, many parents employ private teachers to teach their wards how to read. This study, therefore, is motivated by these factors to use the demonstration technique in an attempt to remedy reading problem of JSS students.
1.2 Statement of the problem.
It is an undeniable fact that reading poses a great problem to junior secondary school students in Nigeria. Most children are unable to cope with reading tasks in most junior secondary schools in Nigeria. Effective techniques for teaching remedial readers have not been properly utilized by language teachers at the JSS level (Omojuwa, 1985).
- For the fact that some students at the JSS level cannot recognise two or three letter words after six years of formal schooling shows that effective teaching methods have not be used. This study will harnessed the demonstration teaching strategies to remedy JSS students‘ inability to recognise two or three letter words.
- Certain phonemes of English sounds are hard nuts for JSS students to discriminate even after seven years of schooling. This is due to poor utilisation of appropriate teaching strategies.
- In addition, for the fact that many JSS students cannot read group of words shows that teachers of English have not adequately exposed these students
on how to read group of words.
Oyetunde (1997) asserts that the fact that many students are failing to do well in school suggests that effective reading skills need to be taught to these students. It is in
the light of the above problems that demonstration technique is selected to teach remedial readers at the JSS level with the aim of helping them solve their reading problems and enhancing their competence.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The objectives of the study are to:
(a) Find out the effectiveness of demonstration techniques on word recognition of remedial reading among JSS students.
- Identify the effect of demonstration techniques on the building of vocabulary component of remedial reading among JSS students.
- Determine the effect of demonstration techniques on phonemic discrimination ability of remedial reading among JSS students.
- Determine the effect of demonstration techniques on reading group of words in remedial reading among JSS students.
1.4 Research questions
The following questions are to guide investigation:
- What is the difference in the mean performance scores of remedial readers at JSS taught word recognition using demonstration techniques and those taught using conventional teaching approach?
- What is the difference in the mean performance scores of remedial readers at JSS taught vocabulary development using demonstration techniques and those taught using conventional teaching approach?
- What is the mean difference in the performance scores of remedial readers at JSS taught phonemic discrimination using demonstration techniques and those taught using conventional teaching approach?
- What is the difference in the mean performance scores of remedial readers at JSS taught reading group of words using demonstration techniques and those taught using conventional teaching approach?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses are formulated to guide the researcher during the process of investigation at P ≤ 0.05
- There is no significant difference between the mean performance scores of remedial readers at JSS taught word recognition using demonstration techniques and those taught using convention teaching approach.
- There is no significant difference between the mean performance scores of remedial readers at JSS taught vocabulary development using demonstration techniques and those taught using conventional teaching approach.
- Significant difference does not exist between the mean performance scores of remedial readers at JSS on phonemic discrimination taught using demonstration techniques and those taught using conventional teaching approach.
- There is no significant difference between the mean performance scores of remedial readers at JSS taught reading group of words using demonstration techniques and those taught using conventional teaching approach.
1.6 Significance of the Study
Teachers of English language can benefit from this study as they may consult the work in order to gain more ideas such as the steps/techniques of remedying reading in their various classes. Curriculum planners can as well make use of the techniques/steps carried out in the study when designing/planning the curriculum on reading at the JSS level of education. This they can do by including some of the steps/techniques demonstrated in this study in the relevant parts of the curriculum meant for teachers.
More so, other researchers carrying out study on methods/techniques of remedying reading problems can find this study very useful as they can tap from the ideas explored in this study. Students who wish to improve their reading can read the work for ideas from the steps/techniques and examples displayed.
In addition, other stakeholders in education such as principals, directors who are in position to recommend suitable teaching methods to remedy reading problems of students can consult this study and make suggestions/recommendations to appropriate authority on the need to use the demonstration method to teach reading.
Further more, students can benefit from this study as they will be exposed to a more vivid way of learning how to read which demonstration techniques provides. This is because their teachers who were hitherto using the conventional method to teach reading will now use demonstration techniques to remedy their reading problems.
Textbook writers can gain ideas from this work as they make use of relevant portions of the study in their textbooks on methods of remedying reading. This is not to
talk about examining bodies which can incorporate the ideas from this study into their annual report sent to schools and other educational institutions.
|1.7||Scope of the Study|
|There are many methods/techniques for remedying reading problems at the|
junior secondary schools. However, for purpose of this study, the researcher has chosen the demonstration technique to remedy the reading challenges in students.
Two junior secondary schools were selected out of the three hundred and four
- junior secondary Schools in Katsina State for this work. The study was delimited to only remedial readers in the two schools. This was to give the study a thorough handling. The instruments used were: National Common Entrance Examinations questions on English language for the pre-test and post-test. The components of reading covered include: word recognition, vocabulary development, phonemic discrimination and ability to read group of words. The fifty remedial readers at JSS one level used as control group will not be given treatment, rather they will continue in their usual conventional learning approach. The fifty remedial readers used as experimental will be given treatment using demonstration techniques.
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