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Effects of Drug Abuse on academic Achievement among Junior Secondary School Students in Social Studies

| Format: Ms Word | 1-5 Chapters | Table of Content|


Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE

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1.1 Background to the Study

The history of drugs illuminates the history of humanity and explores the long relationship between mankind and mind-altering substances. Use of drug is as old as the history of mankind. Almost all primitive and modern societies seem to have used some mood modifying drugs; and in some cases, it was only alcohol. Drugs are chemical substances (solid, liquid or amorphous substances) derived from plants, animals or mineral resources which is applied externally or internally to cause some desirable effects (WHO, 2003). These substances by its chemical nature have an effect to open the body of higher nervous system (the mind) with a negative and positive effect (Linhadt, 2001). The effect of drugs has become endemic in our society to the extent that school teachers have also indulged themselves in drug abuse because of work-group influence and also imitation of conduct from friends who are themselves drug addict or ex-addict (Ajayi and Ekundayo, 2010).

Drug abuse, according to Ajayi and Ayodele (2002), is the wrong use or inappropriate use of chemical substances that are capable of changing functions of cells in the body. Bayer, as cited in Egbochuku and Akerele (2007), saw stimulants, which are substances that cause an increase in the activity of an organ in the body, as chemicals that excite certain activities of the central nervous system. Ajayi and Ekundayo (2010) also saw drug abuse as over-dependence and misuse of one particular drug with or without a prior medical diagnosis from qualified health practitioners.

Every individual grow towards becoming functioning members of the society, in the process of growth, gains empowerment through school learning which act as a determinant for academic excellence. This commitment on the part of Social studies and other non-state actors has extended to ensure that students are properly groomed and tutored on how best to effectively manage themselves in an ever-changing world. These changes have tempted some students to believe that, for them to be able to achieve academic expectations they need to be involve in the use of hard drugs (Brook, etal. 2009).

Drug abuse, is generally viewed as the use of a substance that modifies mood or behaviour in a manner characterized by a maladaptive pattern of use. Musto (2008) says that drug abuse is the use of drug that can cause disorder characterized by the use of a mood or behavioral pattern resulting in significant impairment, such as failure to fulfill social or occupational obligations or recurrent use in situations in which it is physically dangerous to do so or which end in legal problems

Drug abuse is the use of drugs for purposes other than medical reasons, thus affecting the individual negatively, socially, cognitively and physically. Social effects may be reflected in an individual’s enhanced tendency to engage in conflicts with friends, teachers, and school authorities. Cognitive effects relate to the individual’s lack of concentration on academic work and memory loss. Lewinsohn (2007) defines a drug as any product other than food or water that affects the way people feel, think, see, and behave. It is a substance that due to its chemical nature affects the physical, mental and emotional functioning of people. It can enter the body through chewing, inhaling, smoking, drinking, rubbing on the skin or injection.

Drug abuse amongst the global youth population has become a serious problem affecting everyone. Drug addiction has led many people into downward spiral of hopelessness, ranging from glue-sniffing street children and teenage ecstasy, heroin alcohol, tobacco and cocaine (Nacada, 2005). Drug abuse is responsible for lost wages, destruction of property in schools, soaring health care costs and broken families. It is a problem which affects us all as parents, children, teachers, Social studies officials, taxpayers and workers.

The use of hard drugs by students in Nigeria has become an embarrassing phenomenon to parents, schools, social studies authorities, and the society at large. The students today are the leaders of tomorrow and they deserve good education in the right direction (Kothari, 2006)

One of the most common consequences of drug use is keeping up with academic responsibilities. According to, National Institute on Alcohol and Alcoholism (2005) in United State of America about 25% of students experience difficulty in academics due to drug Abuse. Such difficulties include earning low grades, doing poorly on test, missing class and falling behind in academic performance. The common drugs abuse by these students includes alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana etc.  Students who involved themselves in the abuse of these illicit drugs hardly keep up with academic work. Johnson (2012) posits that the abuse of drugs by students is a presumed indicator of academic failure. Even students who don’t use drugs may suffer academic challenge as a result of peer influence. Another effect of drugs includes taking care of friends on drugs and being victims of assault which can affect school work of students who don’t use drug. These consequences can have dramatic end results. Drug use undermine academic mission of schools, colleges and universities. Drug use and its effect on students performance can lead to a decline in the overall academic performance of a school as a result schools may face declining retention rates and poor reputation. Schools with reputation of ‘drug use’ may attract students who engage in high-risk behaviors and may discourage prospective students who are looking for an academically vigorous institution. It was on this background that the researcher was interested to examine the influence of drug abuse on students’ academic achievement in social studies.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In any educational system, success is measured by academic performance or how well a student meets the standard set out by the institution. The menace of failure among the young school students has stared parent, social studies and stakeholders in the face. There is a consensus of opinion about the fallen standard of education as a big problem that is hindering the posterity of the Nigerian nation in terms of quality man-power resources. Most students in secondary schools experience academic challenges that manifest itself in the form of poor academic achievement mostly in Social studies subject.

Measures have been taken by Educational stakeholders in the bit to solve this problem, but all efforts proof abortive. Hence, this study seeks to examine the influence of drug abuse on the academic achievement of students in Social studies



Account Number: 0709546102

Access Bank: Savings
Account Name: Emmanuel Idorenyin Samuel.