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The goal of the study was to ascertain how e-learning resources affected secondary school pupils’ academic performance in Uyo main city. One hundred (100) respondents totaled the sample for the study, which was recruited from 5 public and private schools each. A descriptive research design of survey type was used for the investigation. A questionnaire with sixteen (16) items was used as the study’s instrument to gather data and test the research objectives and hypotheses. Using descriptive statistics and frequency distribution analysis, the data were presented and examined. According to the study, there is a strong and favorable correlation between students’ academic achievement and their use of e-learning resources. According to the study’s findings, students’ use of e-learning resources significantly affects how well they perform academically. Thus, it is confirmed that e-learning tools will help students learn more easily, encourage them to perform better academically, and dramatically increase their interest in the learning materials. According to the study, secondary schools should promote the use of e-learning tools and technology in order to dramatically raise student academic performance.



1.1 Background to the Study

Education is a crucial activity, and good teachers who spend a lot of time getting to know their students personally have historically been connected with high-quality education. The need to catch up with the developed world in a number of areas, particularly in global competitiveness and best practices, has enhanced the importance of education, particularly in a developing nation like Nigeria. In order to attempt to close the gap between the developing and developed worlds, innovative teaching approaches with a focus on information communication technology, or ICT, are required as the globe moves closer to becoming a global village.

According to Aboderin (2015), e-learning includes a wide range of technologies, from the instructor using visual effects to students downloading course materials online and receiving instruction solely through computer use. E-learning is the process of accessing educational materials outside of a traditional classroom by using electronic technologies (www.e-learning.gov, 2019). E-learning is a term that unifies the fields of online learning, web-based training, and technology-delivered instructions. It involves the use of network technologies to create, foster, deliver, and facilitate learning. It encompasses face-to-face, distance, mixed, and blended delivery models that use electronic means.

In recent years, e-learning has drawn a lot of interest from academic researchers and numerous institutions. A computer-based educational system called e-learning allows students to study at any time and from any location. The majority of e-learning is now offered online, however in the past, computer-based techniques like CD-Rom were also used to deliver it (Epignosis, 2014). The effective implementation of diverse learning environments depends on the usage of e-learning tools in the learning process (Abdullah & Azzedine, 2011). According to Galy, Downey, and Johnson (2011), modern classrooms—whether they are in-person or virtual—use learning management systems and e-learning tools that measure students’ cognitive abilities and involve them in the process of learning through technology, all the while fostering a greater need for self-direction.

It goes without saying that ICT plays crucial role in the educational and learning environment. ICT is used in variety of ways in the current classroom environment, from using computers for practical slide shows to providing students with online learning opportunities that foster better learning and intellectual growth (Smith, 2003). Many researchers and institutions were inspired to invest feasible resources in order to ensure the possibility of computers enhancing learning culture after the introduction of computers, the forerunner of our modern ICT, and the promising potentials of computer-based instruction and learning. With computers offering pupils the technology and software necessary for an efficient learning process, many authorities feel that introducing computers into the educational system would be beneficial for students in quantitative sense (Wheeler, 2010).

The digital era has completely changed how individuals study, connect, interact, ask for assistance, and obtain information. We have to acknowledge that the younger generation, especially students, is now a population that uses the internet through a range of devices, including computers, televisions, and mobile phones (Tapscott, 2005; Al Ansari, 2006). Because of this, as technology permeates our culture more and more, it is imperative that educators give children access to relevant, up-to-date experiences that will enable them to interact with technology in a productive way and even better prepare them for life beyond school. It is anticipated that the usage of e-learning resources will improve student achievement, motivation, and the learning process.

Information and communication technology, or ICT, is used in education and makes for more student-centered learning environments. ICT has a growing impact on education and students’ learning behaviors as a result of the world’s rapid shift to digital media and information, and this influence will only increase in the twenty-first century. Two of the hottest terms in academia right now are web-based training and e-learning, which is a more recent and all-encompassing synonym (Odhiambo, 2013). Decision-makers are drawn to its innovative teaching methods because they are more economical than conventional teaching techniques and provide students more control over the learning process by letting them choose how quickly, where, and when to learn. The emergence of e-leaning according to Ani and Ahiauzu, (2008), has tremendously transformed information-handling and management in academic environments.

Despite the fact that classrooms are traditionally thought of as face-to-face learning environments, the integration of ICT tools, such as web-based applications and other technologies, would improve the blended learning experience for students. This is due to the apparent consensus that the use of ICT in the classroom significantly increases students’ interest and participation in the learning process, according to both instructors and students. In order to stay relevant in the quickly evolving landscape of educational services, a very high percentage of teachers (86%) worldwide concur that pupils are more motivated and attentive when computers are included in their study programs (Salau, 2012). This study included information on the use of ICT and how it affects students’ academic achievement and learning objectives.

Educational experts have been interested in accurately predicting pupils’ academic success in school for a long time. Every society in the world aspires to provide its citizens with high-quality education. There are numerous things that need to be taken into account in order to accomplish this admirable goal. One of these is the incorporation of ICT into education as a result of technological advancement, especially at the classroom level. In order to improve learning and expand students’ digital experiences, ICT needs to be brought into classrooms in this day and age of digitalization. Numerous research studies have focused on the learning behavior and comprehension of students because teachers have seen that pupils’ lack of focus makes it difficult to implement effective classroom management strategies. This has big impact on the process of teaching and learning. It is thought that making effective use of ICT will promote learning and inspire students to participate in class activities.  According to Becker (1997), who was referenced by Youseff and Dahlmani (2008), the use of ICT in education will, for example, enable transition from teacher-centered to student-centered approach, boosting teaching and learning.

There is evidence to support the idea that various approaches to educational delivery can provide varying degrees of success when it comes to academic performance or achievement. A increasing body of research has suggested that e-learning enhances students’ academic achievement in relation to online instruction. According to these studies, ICT can strengthen teaching and support school reform while also innovating, accelerating, enriching, and deepening skills, motivating and engaging students, helping to connect school experiences to workplace practices, and creating economic viability for tomorrow’s workers. ( Al-Ansari, 2006; Alkhalaf, Drew & AlHussain, 2012; Lemke & Coughlin, 1998: cited in Yusuf, 2005; Smith and Hardaker, 2000). Thus, there is a great chance that e-learning will have a big impact on education in a growing nation like Nigeria. For instance, Osunade, Ojo, and Ahisu (2009) found in their research that using e-learning significantly affects pupils in the following ways: Among other benefits, (i) has an edit effect on the caliber of student work and practical examples; (ii) enhances language skills through visualization; (iii) equalizes individual differences and has particularly significant effects for students with special needs; (iv) facilitates self-pacing with increased capacities to deal with individual learning styles, as students can work at their own pace and intensity suitable to their needs; and (v) enables collaborative learning with little indication of the isolated learner.

Barker & Wendel (2001) found that students in virtual schools improved more than those in traditional schools in the areas of critical thinking, research, computer use, independent learning, problem-solving, creative thinking, decision-making, and time management. According to a study by Calderoni (1998), students in Mexico’s Telesecundaria program showed academic advantages over traditional classroom instruction, as evidenced by the fact that they were “substantially more likely than other groups to pass a final 9thgrade examination” given by the state; students enrolled in a satellite course on chemistry (Dees, 1994); and students learning math and reading through interactive radio instruction (Yasin & Luberisse, 1998). According to Kearsley (2000), groups of students learning online typically accomplish at levels comparable to their classmates in classrooms when they get education of the same caliber. For adult learners, the equality of the delivery systems has been well documented over many years. Research to date provides compelling evidence that, when implemented properly, electronically delivered education, or “e-learning,” can enhance student learning and provide all kids with access to high-quality learning opportunities (National Association of State Boards of Education, 2001). 

According to Rosenberg, Grad, and Matear (2003), e-learning is at least as effective as traditional instructional strategies. Additionally, academic performance does not significantly differ between more traditional and more technology-oriented modes of instruction (Cavanaugh, 2001). Conversely, some research indicates that more online instruction has a detrimental effect on output (Johnson, 2005). For example, Adeyemi (2011) believes that even though e-learning is supposed to raise the standard of education, making materials available online only improves learning outcomes for certain types of group assessments; students’ and teachers’ resistance to switching from traditional pedagogical methods to more creative, technology-based teaching and learning approaches; a shortage of qualified staff; and inadequate ICT infrastructure as a result of underfunding. According to Abulibdeh and Hassan (2011), e-learning forces students to engage in introspection, remoteness, and a lack of engagement or relation; therefore, it’s important to have excellent time management skills and inspiration to counteract these impacts. Additionally, they discovered that e-learning is less successful when clarifications, offers of explanation, and interpretation are made; this deteriorates institutions, teachers’ roles, and a number of other issues. Measuring the impact of e-learning is a developing issue that is closely related to how technology is used as an educational tool and other factors. It is challenging to determine the true impact of e-learning on students, schools, and the wider environment when it is implemented because of its novelty, diversity of programs, and complexity of factors affecting outcome.

At various educational levels, the subjects that are most important are the prediction and explanation of academic success as well as the investigation of the variables associated with academic achievement. Research has indicated that past academic achievement serves as significant indicator of future performance across range of educational levels. Students’ academic performance and attitudes toward computers are hypothesized to have an impact on their usage of e-learning tools, and their performance is still one of the major factors determining the success of any technological innovation and initiative in any school. The use of ICT in education is growing, making it more important than ever to keep an eye on how technology affects students’ academic achievement. This is due to the significance of demonstrating the connections between students’ academic achievement and their usage of technology. Additionally, it must be demonstrated that technology should be used in education not only as a means to an end but also as a tool to encourage equality, creativity, and empowerment as well as to create effective learners and problem solvers. Numerous scholars have attempted to provide both theoretical and empirical answers to this query. The relationship between the use of e-learning tools and student educational performance is unclear, though, as contradictory results are presented in the literature (Youssef & Dahmani, 2008), as previously explained, because ICT involves evolving technologies and their effects are difficult to isolate from their environment. Thus, this study looked at how e-learning resources affect students’ academic performance in secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State, specifically in the city of Uyo.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

A key component of success for electronic learners is the capacity to efficiently manage their study time. It has been suggested by Palloff and Pratt (2019) that participating in an online course may take two to three times as long as in-person instruction. According to Roblyer (2019), students who struggle with time management are more likely to perform poorly in distant learning courses or to discontinue entirely. Gibson (2018) also mentioned that self-efficacy for learning at a distance is a crucial construct related to distance learners’ persistence and that learners’ perceptions of their capacity for time management are correlated with their self-efficacy assessments. Research also indicates that learning-style effects and engagement effects might have an impact on students’ academic achievement. Carini, Kuh, and Klein (2006) discovered that while there are generally complex relationships between involvement and performance, there is positive correlation between engagement and student performance. Numerous empirical investigations back up their conclusion: While Davies and Graff’s (2005) study conducted in an e-learning environment found that online engagement had no statistically significant impact on examination performance, Rodgers and Ghosh’s (2001) analysis revealed that “effort” (or engagement) levels were highly significant in determining student examination performance.The question of what influences how much time student spends on e-learning has been the subject of other studies in this field. ‘Time’ will rely, according to Arbaugh (2000), on the student’s attitude toward the perceived utility and use of this distribution medium. According to research, students who participate in online courses for longer periods of time are more likely to take charge of their education and gain the most from it (high performance as indicated by grades). Given that students who manage their time well are more likely to learn and/or perform better than those who do not, it follows that we might anticipate finding a significant and positive relationship between the degree of e-learning engagement and academic performance.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of e-learning tools on
secondary school students’ academic performance in Uyo metropolis. The specific
objectives are: 
1. To determine the level of students’ Utilization of E-Learning Tools for Learning.
2. To evaluate the effects of E-Learning Tools and Students’ Motivation to Learn.
3. To examine the effects of E-learning Tools and Student Engagement in Academic
4.To determine the effects of E-learning Tools and Students’ Academic

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions were raised to provide answers sought in this study:
  1. What is the level of students’ Utilization of E-Learning Tools for Learning?
  2. What are the effects of E-Learning Tools and Students’ Motivation to Learn?
  3. What are  the  effects  of  E-learning  Tools  and  Student  Engagement  in  Academic Activities?
  4. What are the effects of E-learning Tools and Students’ Academic Performance?


Aboderin, O.S. (2015). Challenges and prospects of e-learning at the National Open
University of Nigeria. Journal of Educational Technology, 9: 207-216.
Abdullah, A. & Azzedine, L. (2011). A novel outcome-based educational model & its
effect on student learning. Curriculum Development & Assessment. Journal of
Information Technology Education, 38 (3): 44-45.
Barker, K., & Wendel, T. (2001). E-learning: studying Canada’s virtual secondary schools. Kelowna, BC: Society for the Advancement of Excellence in Education. Retrieved from: http://www.excellenceineducation.ca/pdfs/006.pdf.on 11 March,2019.
Carini, R.M., Kuh, J.D. & Klein, S.P. (2006). Student engagement and student learning:
Testing the linkages. Research in Higher Education, 47, 1-32.