EFFECTS OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE AND PSYCHOSOCIAL VARIABLES ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN CHEMISTRY IN ONNA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – ii
Certification – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgements – – – – – – v
Table of Content – – – – – – – vi
List of Tables – – – – – – – x
Abstract – – – – – – – – xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study- – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of problem – – – – – 7
1.3 Purpose of the Study – – – – – 9
1.4 Research Questions – – – – – 9
1.5 Research Hypothesis – – – – – 10
1.6 Significance of the Study – – – – 11
1.7 Assumption of the Study – – – – 11
1.8 Scope of the Study – – – – – 12
1.9 Limitations to the Study – – – – 13
1.10 Definition of Terms – – – – – – 13
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Theoretical Frame-Work – – – – 15
2.1.1 Behaviourist Theory (B.F. Skinner, 1974) – – 15
2.1.2 Social Learning Theory (Albert Barduna, 1986) 17
2.2 Conceptual Frame Work – – – – – 19
2.2.1 Examination Malpractice and Academic
Performance – – – – – – 19
2.2.2. Home Environment and Academic
Performance of Chemistry Students – – 22
2.2.3 Peer Group Influence and Academic
Performance in Chemistry – – – – 26
2.3 Review of Empirical Studies – – – – 30
2.3.1 Home Environment and Students’
Academic Performance in Chemistry – – 30
2.3.2 Examination Malpractices and Students
Academic Performance in Chemistry – – 31
2.3.3 Peer Group Influence and Academic
Performance – – – – – – 34
2.3.3 Summary of Literature Review – – – 36
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – 38
3.2 Area of the Study – – – – – 39
3.3 Population of the Study – – – – – 41
3.4 Sampling Technique – – – – – 41
3.5 Sample – – – – – – – 42
3.6 Instrumentation – – – – – – 42
3.6.1 Validity of the Instrument – – – – – 43
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument – – – – 44
3.8 Research Procedure – – – – – 44
3.9 Scoring – – – – – – – 45
3.10 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – 46
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Results – – – – – – – – 47
4.1.1 Research Question One:
(Examination malpractice) – – – – 47
4.1.2 Research Question II: (Home Environment) – 49
4.1.3 Research Question III: (Peer Group) – – 50
4.2 Discussion of Results – – – – – 51
4.2.2 Hypothesis 2: (Home Environment) – – 53
4.2.3 Hypothesis 3: (Peer Group) – – – – 54
4.3 Summary of Findings – – – – – 56
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – 57
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – 59
5.3 Implications of the Findings – – – – 59
5.4 Recommendations – – – – – 61
5.5 Suggestions for Further Study – – – 63
References – – – – – – – 64
This study was carried out in order to determine the effect of examination malpractice and psychosocial variables on the academic performance of students in chemistry in Onna Local Government area of Akwa Ibom State. A review of literature was carried out under the broad headings of theoretical framework, conceptual framework and empirical framework. The study adopted the survey research design. The population consisted of four thousand two hundred (4200) SS3 students. The sample size was two hundred (200) students selected from two schools in the study area using random sampling technique of balloting. The instrument used for the collection of data was a questionnaire on Examination Malpractice and Psychosocial Variables in Chemistry (EMPC). Three research questions were made and three hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. Mean and standard deviations were used to provide answers for the research questions while the independent t-test was used to test for hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that examination malpractice and psychosocial variables affect academic performance highly and lowly. The study recommended that schools should try every possible ways to curb examination malpractice and that parents should pay attention to their students’ academic work as home environment is a key factor in students’ academic performance.
1.1 Background to the Study
It is important for students to do well in school because this lays a foundation for their numerous future accomplishments in life, a high academic performance in a certain subject shows the level of understanding of the concept it entails. The students’ performance in school can be linked to their mental abilities, level of creativity and their ability to understand and retain what is being taught. Students do not learn automatically they need guidance and direction before real interest is developed, eventually leading to effective learning.
Thus, the effective evaluation of the execution of the school curriculum, assessment of students and teachers and the teaching method, the standard assessment test or examination is carried out in all subjects where the best are selected. According to Okon (2012), Adequate and proper acquisition of relevant knowledge and skills in school subjects and discipline of study is invariably a function of quality education. This is why gaining admission into the higher institution in Nigeria requires a credit pass in at least five subjects during the West African examination council examination, examination council taken every year. It states “Transition from secondary education to tertiary education shall be through the appropriate selection mechanism (National Policy of education, 2013;43). Evaluation usually enables the teacher to be effectively ready for further teaching as this form of evaluation is often regarded as feedback.
Examination as a part of evaluation is aimed at determining a learner’s level of skill acquisition or intellectual competence and understanding after a given training. A reality that cannot be ignored is that no matter how enviable the educational goals are, if no provision is made for accurate evaluation of learning progress, all these efforts will be a wasteful venture.
Examination malpractice could be seen as any illegal act committed by a student single handily or in collaboration with others during or after examination in order to obtain underserved marks or grades. Till date, examination still remains the best tool for an objective assessment and evaluation of what learners have achieved after a period of schooling, hence any action that undermines examinations poses a threat to the validity and reliability of examination results and citification. The growing attribute of examination malpractice in Onna Local Government Area calls for serious attention.
Another factor that affects academic performance are the psychosocial variables. According to Oyersterman, (2011) students could interpret experiences such that it can affect their judgment and reaction towards academics. The word “psycho” is a word forming element meaning “mind, mental, spirit, unconscious” from the Greek word “Psylcho” which social is derived from the Latin word “socii”.
According to Wikipedia (2018) as retrieved, psychosocial variables is seen as a study that examines a person’s fear and how he relates to each other in a society setting. Psycho social variables refer to one’s psychological development in an interaction with a social environment. Psychosocial variables are psychological and social factors that affect individual’s attitude and behavior. Some of such factors are home environment, per group influence, the teachers and the Government, motivation, self-concept, parental pressure. These factors affects the students’ academic performance in chemistry
The educational system in Nigeria aims at developing youths towards self-discovery as well as acquisition of basic scientific skills. According to Tom (2009) science and technology education is the factory for the production of the needed technologists, technicians and craft man who are required to turn the nation’s economy around and usher in the desired technological advancement which is very much required for the deviation of Nigeria from a “Consumer Nation to a “Producer Nation”
In the chemistry curriculum, its broad objectives are to help it acquire basic theoretical and practical knowledge and skills, developing interest in science, technology and mathematics.
The achievement of these objectives requires a student who is not just physical fit but is sound psychologically and socially. A sound student finds it easy to understand scientific concepts and practicalize them without being under pressure while students affected by these psychosocial variables negatively are affected by fear, anxiety, low self-esteem, parental influence, these affect their academic performance and their understanding of chemistry.
According to Udogu (2010) the academic achievement is the attainment of set objectives measure from the score obtained through test. Thus the success of science teaching is dependent on the learner’s ability to achieve and recall prescribed concepts meaningfully.
Examination malpractice and psychosocial variables have been in existence as long as education was known in man’s history. This affects the educational performance of the students negatively affected by these two “epidemic factors.
The incidence of poor academic performance in chemistry in senior secondary schools is becoming alarming, thus the motivation behind this research on the effect of examination malpractice and psychosocial variables on the academic performance of student in chemistry in Onna L.G.A.
1.2 Statement of problem
Chemistry is seen as the most important aspect of science due to the special attributes and analogy with other core science subjects such as mathematics, physics, and Biology. Hence, to a concrete knowledge, and understanding of most concepts basic knowledge of Biology, Mathematics and Physics is required.
Examination malpractice has been detrimental to the success of science in Nigeria educational system as it’s has gained a strong ground in most schools in our country.
During standard examinations (Wasce/Neco/Jamb) where there is minimal ability to cheat, their results assumes a ‘Quid Pro quo’
The poor academic performance of students in secondary school chemistry is alarming as their psycho-social welfare is taken into consideration, although it cannot be assumed that all student’s academic performance are negatively affected by pscho-social variables. It is important to take these variables into consideration.
In the light of these observations, it’s imperative to undertake a study on the effects of examination malpractice and psycho-social variables on student’s academic performance in chemistry in Onna L.G.A. of Akwa Ibom State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The research found on the psychosocial factors that influence the performance of students in chemistry in Onna L.G.A. specifically is focused on;
- The effect of home environment on students’ academic performance in chemistry.
- The effect of peer group influence on students’ academic performance in chemistry.
- The effect of examination malpractice on students’ academic performance in chemistry.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions were formated to guide the investigation;
- How does home environment affect student’s academic performance in senior secondary school chemistry.
- What is the relationship between peer group influence and students academic performance in chemistry.
- What effect does examination malpractice have on students academic performance in chemistry.
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- There is no significant influence on home environment on students academic performance in senior secondary chemistry.
- Peer group does not have any significant influence on students academic performance in chemistry.
There is no significant relationship between examination mal practice and students academic performance in chemistry.
1.6 Significance of the Study
Poor academic performance in chemistry in Onna L.G.A. is now a common problem facing chemistry teachers and the school in general, this problem is easily detected in both internal and external examinations , so it calls for a solution. This is when the study becomes important as its expected that the findings and recommendation would;
- Enable parents realize the role they play in the positive or negative performance of their children’s academic pursuit.
- Helps the educational sector pass more laws on the importance of Guidance and counseling in secondary schools and try to minimize the trend.
1.7 Assumption of the Study
Certain assumptions where made during the course of the study, it is assumed that;
- Parents who are more involved in their children’s academic work influence their academic work better than those that don’t involve themselves in their children’s school work.
- Homes with high socio-economic status influence their children’s academic performance better than those of low socio-economic status.
- The questionnaire will be accurately administered and the response given by the respondents of this study are true, objectively and reliable.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study was on effects of examination malpractice and psychosocial variables on students academic performance in chemistry in Onna L.G.A. of Akwa Ibom State. This study covers the teachers and the students in six selected government secondary schools in Onna L.G.A. However, it is confined to the SS3 class and the academic year was 2018/2019.
1.9 Limitations to the Study
There are certain limitations against this study, the time for the investigation was very short, and coupled with other programmes. The researchers also had financial problems in the cost of running the unaccessibility of the needed materials and information was another limitation.
1.10 Definition of Terms
Psychosocial Variables: This refers to one’s psychosocial development in an interaction with a social environment. It is seen as study that examines a person’s fear and how he relates to others in a social setting.
Home Environment: This is a physical condition, the inter personal interaction and motivational climate which the child first comes in contact with in the home.
Peer Group: Owan in Asuquo et al, (2010) describes the peer group as a group composed of individuals which are equal.
Academic performance: This has to do with how well a person (or a group of persons) does his/her academic task. That action might be positive or negative and this influences the academic achievement.
Examination Malpractice: This is defined as any deliberate act of wrong doing, contrary to the rules of examinations designed to give a candidate an under advantage.
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