TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Research question
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Scope and limitation of the study
1.8 Definition of terms
1.9 Organization of the study
2.1 theoretical review
2.2 Conceptual review
2.3 empirical review
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Area of the study
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
The study examines education and human capital development through appropriate utilisation of information services. The study is essentially a descriptive analysis of the state of education and human development in Taraba state and assesses the readiness of Taraba state government on the development of education and human capital. The study from various literature consulted revealed that government contribution to education and human capital development is inadequate and maintain that government use of information machineries and services are unsatisfactory and so beneficiaries of education and human capital are starved. In view of the above, it was recommended that Taraba state government should increase her budgetary allocation to education and adopt appropriate strategies for training and retraining of teachers in all categories of academic institutions in Taraba state and also overhaul her information service delivery machinery.
1.1 Background of the study
Education is an extremely important element in the organisation of modern society. There is now growing awareness in both developed and developing countries of the role of education. According to Adawo (2011) Nigeria had the fastest growing educational industry in the African continent. For instance in 1960, Nigeria had two universities (university of Ibadan and university of Nigeria, Nsukka) with student enrolment of about 1,400. Forty years later, Nigeria had 77 universities, an increase of 75 universities and percentage increase of 3750 (Umo cited in Adawo, 2011). Today, the total number of universities in Nigeria has increased geometrically without a corresponding increase in funding and undermines the place of education on the current legislative list in the 1999 constitution that provided the legal framework for educational management in Nigeria. Primary and secondary schools at 1960 were 15,703 and this has increased to 50, 741 in 2004, an increase of 35,038 or a percentage increase of 233%. The number of secondary schools was 833 in 1960 and increased to 10913 in 2004, an increase of 10030 or percentage increase of 1136% (Adawo, 2011). Human capital has been recognized globally as one of the major factors that is responsible for the wealth of nations (Oluwatobi & Ogunrinola, 2011). It is believed that the concept of human capital was popularized in the 1950s and 1960s when labour-related experts began to look at issues around workforce quality when businesses spent money on training and education (Price Waterhouse Coopers, 2006). Companies developed an expectation that improvements in workforce quality through training would improve productivity and earning (John, 2007). In the same vein, Nigerian governments over the years recognized the importance of human capital formation in the development process and have embarked on various programmes and projects such as Universal Basic Education (UBE), presidential scholarship programme, residency programme for medical graduates and National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), among others which led to the establishment of educational institutions and health centres throughout the country (Oladoyin & Dauda, 2010). Human capital development refers to a conscious and continuous process of acquiring and increasing the number of people with requisite knowledge, education, skill and experience that are crucial for the economic development of a country (Odusola, 2008). It entails building a nation’s human resource endowment to make them knowledgeable, skillful, healthy and productive, which provides for the optimal exploitation and utilization of other resources to stimulate growth and development (Atoyebi, Olaleye, Ishola, Adekunjo & Kadiri, 2013). It can also be seen as the development of education and health to cultivate and develop individual capacities for optimal performance. Organizing and structuring of a solid academic staff development program influences the realization of the school goals. Employee development refers to the human resource development programs designed to enhance the value of employee after they have joined the organization. This according to Bingilar and Etale (2014) includes employee training, orientation promotion, mentoring, seminar and workshop among others. Training is the organized way in which organizations provide development and enhanced quality of new and existing employees. Training is viewed as a systematic approach of learning and development that improve individual, group and organization Fanny (2001), thus it is the series of activities embarked upon by organization that leads to knowledge or skills acquisition for growing purposes. Staff development has been accepted as an effective method of increasing the knowledge and skills of teacher‟s in order to enable teachers to teach more effectively. According to Lawal (2004), staff development programmes for teachers are important aspects of education process that deal with the art of acquiring skills in the teaching profession. They are essential practices that enhance subject mastery, teaching methodology and classroom management. The objective of staff development programmes is that it ensures the promotion of professional growth. Help to improve pedagogical skills. Keep teachers abreast with new knowledge. Meet particular needs, such as curriculum development and orientation. Help in leadership responsibility. Help new teachers to adjust to teaching field. Helps to promote mutual respect among teachers and recognizes the need for modern teaching methods (Madumere-Obike, 2007).
Generally, education in Nigeria has been perceived as an instrument “per excellence” for effecting national development (FRN, 2004:4). Government has stated that for the benefit of all citizens, the country’s educational goals shall be clearly set out in terms of their relevance to the needs of the individual and those of the society, in consonance with the realities of our environment and the modern world. If our education is to achieve the national goals, then, welltrained, well-qualified and efficient educators are absolutely essential. Thus, no educational system may rise above the quality of its teachers, is an old academic. Therefore, acquiring teacher’s services, developing their skills, motivating them to high levels of productivity and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment to the organization are essential to achieving school organizational goals. Teachers’ personnel management is responsible for activities such as recruitment and selection, training, wage and salary administration, establishing staffing ratios, benefit planning and productivity. It is their responsibility to develop and recommend policies and procedures which will contribute to the achievement of the goals in the educational system. In summary, the functions of personnel are to select, train, develop, assimilate and remunerate teachers (AjaOkorie, 2014). Managing teachers is that part of school management function which is concerned with teachers at work and their relationship within the educational enterprise. It seeks to bring together and develop into an effective educational organization, men and women who make up the teaching workforce, enabling each to make his/her own best contribution to its success. Management of teaching workforce involves a number of strategies that begins and maintain activities toward the achievement of personal and organizational goals. Omebe (2001) is of the view that well managed teachers will always look for better ways to do their teaching job. They are more quality oriented and more productive. Management of teachers can be through the adoption of these management strategies; supervision, in-service training and compensation among others. Hence, any teacher that enjoys the influence of the above named strategies is bound to give all his best in discharging his or her duty because he would derive the satisfaction of being a teacher, which in-tum will boost his/her productivity.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The management of educational institutions depend largely on the ability of the educational manager to carefully and judiciously utilize human, material, financial and time resources towards effective and efficient achievement of the goals and objectives of education. It also involves the functions of planning, coordinating, directing, controlling, leading and evaluating the human, material, financial and time resources towards the achievement of the goals or objectives of educational institutions. The success or failure of every educational system depends largely on the quality, quantity and above all, the maintenance of its factors of production force. This is because, when individuals are not aligned with organizational strategy, time and other resources are wasted. In Taraba state and particularly North East Senatorial District, the researchers have observed that teachers leave their work places in search of money to solve their financial problems because they are not paid for months, in-service training is not provided for them, they are not promoted as and when due and stagnated for many years without promotion among other issues. The recruitment and selection of teachers in secondary schools is said to be on the basis of “man-no-man” thereby non qualitative teachers are numerously found in the secondary schools in the study area. The researchers are worried about this lack of recruitment, promotion, prompt payment of salaries and in-service training among others in secondary schools particularly in North East Senatorial District of Taraba State. This attitude if not properly addressed would have adverse effect on teachers’ job performance in secondary schools in North East Senatorial District of Taraba State.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to examine the effect of human capital development on teachers productivity in senior secondary schools in Taraba state; but to aid the completion of the study, the researcher intend to achieve the following specific objectives;
- i) To examine the effect of human capital development on teachers productivity in Taraba state
- ii) To examine the role of government in the training and development of teachers in Taraba state
iii) To examine the relationship between human capital development and the quality of teachers in senior secondary schools in Taraba state
- iv) To examine the impact of teachers qualification on the quality of his job performance
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;
- i) Does human capital development has any effect on teachers productivity in Taraba state?
- ii) Does government play any role government in the training and development of teachers in Taraba state?
iii) Is there any significant relationship between human capital development and the quality of teachers in senior secondary schools in Taraba state?
- iv) Does teachers qualification has any impact on the quality of his job performance?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;
H0: there is no significant relationship between human capital development and the quality of teachers in senior secondary schools in Taraba state
H1: there is a significant relationship between human capital development and the quality of teachers in senior secondary schools in Taraba state
H0: Teacher’s qualification does not have any impact on the quality of his job performance
H2: Teacher’s qualification does have an impact on the quality of his job performance.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Staff development has become a central function for teachers‟ management in that it improves the overall level of productivity after pre-service training. The significance of this study is based on the research finding that will avail to the academic community on how staff development programmes impact on teachers‟ effectiveness. The study is relevant to students and other researchers who are furthering their studies on different aspects of staff development, school management and the larger academic communities as well will rely on the work. The study will benefit the federal government being the major financer of education across the country has spent a lot on staff development programmes. However, the teachers‟ service commission will also benefit from the research work because of being the co-coordinating organ and policy making body for secondary schools. The study is reliable in encouraging government on the importance of in-service training, workshop, seminars, conferences, symposium and mentoring programmes for teachers to improve their skills and academic performance in secondary schools. Furthermore, the study is relevant to administrators, stakeholder and non-governmental organization on the need for every staff to be constantly upgraded to keep abreast with the rapid changing society
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study investigated the effects of human capital development on teachers productivity in senior secondary schools in Taraba state. This study was delimited to principals, zonal inspectors and teachers in secondary schools in Taraba State. Other factors that limited the scope of the study includes;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
- c) Finance: Limited Access to the required finance was a major constrain to the scope of the study as it become cumbersome to cover more grounds and to print more.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Human capital development
Human capital is considered to be one of the most important elements of company success. The process of developing human capital requires creating the necessary environments in which employees can learn better and apply innovative ideas, acquire new competencies, develop skills, behaviors and attitudes.
A teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone
Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency of production. A productivity measure is expressed as the ratio of output to inputs used in a production process, i.e. output per unit of input
Senior secondary schools
Is a secondary school that students attend in the three or four highest grades before college
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study