EFFECTS OF MULTIMEDIA ON THE PERFORMANCE OF JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE LISTENING AND SPEAKING SKILLS IN GIWA EDUCATIONAL ZONE OF KADUNA STATE
| Format: Ms Word | 1-5 Chapters | Table of Content|
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The issue of poor and wrong articulation of English Language sounds had been noticed among junior secondary school students in Giwa Educational Zone of Kaduna State. An observation by the researcher who went round the schools to interact with students and teachers discovered that most teachers do not teach listening and speaking skills and some of those who taught it were not using appropriate resources that could assist the students. With the little discovery of the researcher in this aspect, the researcher then decided to aim at finding out the effects of multimedia on listening and speaking skills of Junior Secondary School Students in Giwa Educational Zone of Kaduna State. Quasi-experimental design of pretest and posttest group was adopted for the study. The research instrument was performance test for both control and experimental group. The sample for the study was two hundred (200) students purposely selected from a population of (12,104) in twenty-six Government Junior Secondary Schools in Giwa Educational Zone of Kaduna State. One hundred of the sample was randomly assigned to form the experimental group and another one hundred to form the control group. Inferential and descriptive statistics were the statistical tools used for data analysis. Four null hypotheses were tested and analyze with t-test statistic. The finding from the study shows that all the null hypotheses were rejected. The findings revealed that there was a significant difference between the performances in the two groups. The experimental group was found to have higher mean scores of 72.45 in speaking skill and 31.15 in listening skill while the control groups have 27.35 in speaking and 19.70 in listening. Multimedia was found to be effective resources for teaching and learning of English Language listening and speaking skills. It was however concluded that, multimedia enables students to be more motivated and interested in learning listening and speaking skills. Based on the findings recommendations were made among which includes that government should make concerted efforts to provide computer facilities in secondary school and awareness on the need for multimedia in our educational system.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
List of Tables
|CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION|
|1.1||Background to the Study||1|
|1.2||Statement of Problem||4|
|1.3||Objectives of Study||5|
|1.7||Significance of Study||7|
|1.8||Scope of the Study||8|
|1.9||Limitations of the Study||8|
|1.10||Operational Definition of Terms||9|
|CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE|
|2.2||Relevance of Technology in Education||13|
|2.3||Concept of Multimedia||16|
|2.4||Development of Multimedia in Nigeria||19|
|2.5||Concept of Listening Skill||21|
|2.6||Concept of Speaking Skill||26|
|2.7||Psychological Process of Listening and Speaking Skills||28|
|2.8||Significance of Teaching English Language Listening and Speaking|
|2.9||Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in Language teaching||33|
|2.10||Role of Multimedia in teaching English Language||35|
|2.11||Effects of Multimedia in Teaching Listening and Speaking Skills||38|
|2.12||Review of Empirical Studies||42|
|CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY|
|3.4||Sample and Sampling Technique||46|
|3.6||Validity of the Instrument||48|
|3.8||Procedure for Data Collection||49|
3.9 Procedure for Data Analysis 50
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
|4.2||Comparison of the Experimental and Control Group in|
|4.3||Comparison of the Experimental and Control Group in|
|4.4||Comparison of Urban and Rural Experimental Group in Speaking|
|4.5||Comparison of Urban and Rural Experimental Group in Listening Skill||55|
|4.6||General Comparison of Experimental and Control Groups|
|Using group Statistic||57|
|4.7||Discussion of Findings||58|
|4.8||Summary of Findings||61|
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
|5.2||Summary of the Study||63|
|5.3||Conclusion of the Study||65|
|5.5||Contribution to Knowledge||67|
|5.6||Suggestions for Further Studies||68|
1.1 Background to the Study
The ability of human beings to share ideas, knowledge and information with one another for the growth of the society has always been a primary factor in man’s evolution. Language being the means of communication is a vital tool at the disposal of humanity for the successful development of the society.
Foyewa (2008) describes language as a gift of nature that distinguishes man from other beings. According to him, it is a way through which human mind, thought and feelings are expressed. Zango (2009) also put language as a system by which sounds and meaning are related. The ability to effectively match the sound of a particular language with their meaning bestows communicative capacity on an individual. However, Crystal (2001) describes language as a system of symbolic communications. That is, language is primarily an auditory system of symbols that can be combined and transformed to produce different meanings.
The acquisition of a functional language has brought about the learning of English language as the most important subject in the school curriculum. English language in Nigeria is used for academic purposes, as a medium of instruction, for social interaction nationwide, broadcasting, official language and used internationally. The notion of English as an international language has also prompted a revision on the notion of communicative competence. The teaching profession calls for high standards of competence in many fields and English language is among the most important. Gaining proficiency in a language requires sufficient time. A student may acquire conversational English in seven months but not have the language proficiency of distinguishing between speech sounds and using them appropriately. This of course, has a serious implication as far as intelligibility is concerned. Since far more time is spent on listening and speaking than reading or writing, the need for examining how well it is taught seem advisable. Since the early 1960s’ language teachers have witnessed dramatic changes in the ways that language are taught. The focus of instruction has broadened from the teaching of discrete grammatical structure to the fostering of communication ability (Warschaver and Kern, 2000). The emergence of multimedia tools in language teaching with appearance of communicative approaches has attracted the attention of teachers, academicians, educationist and experts. Brinton (2001) opined that multimedia tools serve as an important motivator in the language teaching process because “media materials can lend authenticity to the classroom situation, reinforcing for students the direct relation between the language classroom and the outside world” (pg 461). Hartnett (as cited in Brinton 2001) shared that media tools appeal to students’ senses and help them process information, thus empowering their understanding of the target language and increasing their motivation toward language learning, reinforcing the teaching points and saving the teacher unnecessary explanation. The rationales of these are from the awareness that emphasis in foreign language learning which has moved from traditional approach – one that focuses on the study of the language itself to a communicative approach in which learners acquire both linguistic and cultural competence. The application of multimedia tools can foster this goal by creating “a learning environment wherein students practice their language skills and acquire the target language. (Brauer 2001, pp 130). Mollica (as cited in Brinton, 2001) also suggested that media provide teachers with a means of presenting material in a time efficient and compact manner and of stimulating student’s senses, thereby helping them to process information more readily. In other words such media as audio and video equipment, computer related software and internet sources have been seen as effective tools to develop students’ language competence so that they can interact comfortably. In view of this, Stempleski (1994) explored online video as a tool of foreign language learning. Video is a flexible vehicle for comprehension practice or for the presentation of new language. Video particularly in its authentic forms effectively stimulates language production, especially with students. “The internet is a suitable place to practice language as it offers the possibility, with the right software, of using images and audio resources at the same time, combining sounds and images as in communicative situations in the real world. It also provides users with a highly appealing and innovative format” (Labayen, Estopania, and Olmos, 2005 pp9). However, all of these can only be displayed in a computer. Hoven (1999) asserts that computer allows L2 learners to determine the way and the pace that suits them and their needs. However, Ehsani (1998) emphasize that by combining sound, vision, text, video and animation, the self paced interactive learning environment create much more educative and creative classroom environments. As more opportunities arise for learners to use multimedia, some formal attention will have to be given to improving listening and speaking skills. Children learn English at a tender age in Nigeria, yet despite this early exposure there are quite a number of problems facing Nigerian speakers of English language. The largest problem appears to be linguistic. Most students feel that English people speak very quickly and they speak with variety of accents and thirdly with different styles of speech. For all these reasons students have difficulty mainly because they lack everyday practice in listening and speaking of English. Students speak only in their
native language; others use both English and their native language, but they still have difficulty with English. Taiwo (2000) concludes that “most Nigerians have the intelligibility of their spoken English defeated by wrong stress and incorrect intonation”. These are of course, some of the problems associated with learning English across the world. And it is on this ground that the researcher aimed at investigating the effects of multimedia on English Language listening and speaking skills of Seco
ndary School Students.
1.2 Statement of the ProblemThere has been a great increase of mass failure in English language examination among the secondary school students in recent years, and this is borne out of the poor receptive and productive skills in English language. According to WAEC Chief Examiner’s report on the May/June 2005 SSCE as contained in Okafor (2005) stated that many students fail English Language because of inadequate mastery of English Language grammar, which manifests itself in many forms: bad grammar, lack of coherency in essays and rough expression of ideas. Evidences abound that the average Nigerian student manifests significant grammatical incompetence and that students upon leaving secondary school nowadays could not articulate sound communication which are essential English Language skills (Olibie 2003 and Udosen 2005). The analysis of 2006 to 2010 WAEC result given by Kaduna State Ministry of Education (2008) stated that the percentages of students who failed English Language ranges between 44.4%, 58.4%, 52.3%, 68.8% and 81.3% respectively. However, Olapoopo (1998) as cited in Aduwa (2006) indicated that the percentage of failure of 1988 and 1996 SSCE was between 53.36% and 72.71%. Also, Brown (2000) asserts that “the most formidable problem seems to be pronunciation”, especially the spelling irregularities or inconsistencies in English Language. Nigerians learn the articulation of vowels and consonant sound from the point of view of their first language which resulted into mother tongue interfering with English Language. More so, Bonwell and Eison (1996) affirm that the problem of students’ poor performance was generally caused by poor method of teaching. In schools, it was always teacher talk and chalkboard methods of instruction. And in a way, this shows lack of appropriate and adequate application of educational technology that brings about maximum and noticeable effectiveness in teaching and learning process. In other word, a rich and stimulating language environment during the early years and beyond is essential to the development of verbal and intellectual skills necessary for language learning. It is on this ground that the researcher therefore intends to find out whether multimedia will be more effective in improving students listening and speaking skill. The researcher also intends to carry out the study on Junior Secondary School Students because it is at this level that correct form of English are expected to be established in order to prepare them for the great future ahead.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study include:
- To ascertain the effects of multimedia on Junior Secondary School Students English Language listening skill.
- To ascertain the effects of multimedia on Junior Secondary School Students speaking skill.
- To examine the effect of multimedia on rural and urban Junior Secondary School Students in speaking skill.
- To find out the effect of multimedia on rural and urbanJunior Secondary School Students in listening skill.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised to guide the study:
- What is the effect of multimedia on teaching and learning of English language listening skill?
- What effect does multimedia have on Junior Secondary School Students in speaking skill?
- What is the effect of multimedia on Students in rural and urban area in speaking skill?
- What is the effect of multimedia on Students in rural and urban areas in listening skill?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypothesis would be tested in this study:
- There is no significant difference between the performance of Junior Secondary School Students exposed to multimedia on listening skill and those not exposed.
- There is no significant difference between the performance of Students exposed to multimedia on speaking skill and those not exposed.
- There is no significant difference between the performance of rural and urban Students exposed to multimedia in speaking skill.
- There is no significant difference between the performance of rural and urban Students exposed to multimedia in listening skill.
1.6 Basic Assumptions:
The following assumptions were made in this study.
- That multimedia can be an effective material to improve the listening and speaking skills of secondary school students
- Those students who are exposed to multimedia will perform better in listening and speaking skills than those in control group.
- That students taught with multimedia in both rural and urban area will perform better in listening and speaking skills.
1.7 Significance of the Study
Oral and aural aspects of language learning are the most essential avenues for both encoding and decoding messages in communication processes. It is only when there is correct speech sounds with good accents that we can put across what is in our minds to the learner or hearer. Whatever learners listen to and pronounce often remains in their memory for a long time. However, until much listening and speaking exercises are done on English language, a beginner cannot be expected to acquire the skill of reading and writing the language adequately.
This study will be useful to students in enhancing the performance of students towards English sounds, developing listening ability, facilitating social adjustment and establishing patterns of thinking. They will also benefit from learning correct pronunciation through multimedia with a view to enhancing their communication effectively especially when appropriate facilities and teaching environments are enacted. This is because students need conscious and deliberate training in listening and speaking skills with appropriate resources to enable them perform well in their receptive and speech test. The study will be of importance to teachers because it will assist them to become a creative facilitator of learning experience through the use of appropriate software for teaching listening and speaking skills to improve the students’ pronunciation.
This study however will enable parents to provide computer for their children and guide them on how to listen and watch video on pronunciation. This will all encourage them to speak English at home. The school authority will benefit from the study because it will encourage them to provide enabling environment like multimedia language laboratory for teaching the skills in order to avoid distraction of attention through noises from outside the classrooms. The study will also enable the school authority to allocate more periods on the time table for effective usage of multimedia in teaching the skills so that both teachers and students will have enough time to teach and learn the skills very well. The study will also serve as resource materials for those who may wish to embark on similar research work. The government will also benefit from the study because the successful students of today who are an articulated speaker and an active listener will make up the labour force of tomorrow, and thereby bringing about progress in all sectors of the economy. The educational sector will find this study useful because it will enable them to realize that mastery of a language on the ability to listen well, understand the speeches of other people and the ability to communicate effectively depends on the effective use of multimedia in teaching and learning situation. This will thereby help in improving the listening and speaking skills of students and also addressing the mass failure of secondary school students in English language examination.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The research work focuses on investigating the effects of multimedia on English language listening and speaking skills of Secondary School Students in Kaduna State. The study will cover government Junior Secondary Schools in Giwa Educational Zone of Kaduna State. Four schools were selected using the geographical locations of the school i.e. rural and urban area. The study is delimited to JSS III students of the selected schools because it is at this level that correct forms of English listening and speaking skills are expected to be established
1.9 Limitations of the Study
- The cultural differences among the students does not allow for easy assessment of their performance in speaking test both at pre-test stage and post test stage.
- The western software adopted for the study created some articulation difficulty for the students at the initial stage of the training exercise in which it affected their concentration.
- Intact class used for the study affected the concentration level of the students. This was due to distracting noises around the classroom environment.
1.10 Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms are used in the study. They are operationally defined as follows:
Effect: Something that inevitably follows an antecedent (as a cause or agent). It is also the way in which events, actions or person changes something i.e. the extent of change, result or outcome.
Multimedia: It is the processing and presentation of information in a structured manner using more than one media such as text, graphics, animation, audio, video, laptop, digital camera, editing devices, computer graphic software.
Listening Skill: This is the total act of receiving communication by auditory means.
Speaking Skill: This is a way of producing correct speech sounds with good accents of the listener and hearer.
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