EFFECTS OF PICTURES AND REALIA ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN BASIC TECHNOLOGY IN NIGERIA
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This study investigated the effect of pictures and realia on academic performance of junior secondary school students in basic technology in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study sought to determine the effect of pictures and realia on the academic performance of junior secondary school students in basic technology. This study was guided by research questions and null hypotheses. The study was delimited to only junior secondary school three (IlI) students of public secondary schools in Zonkwa and Kachia Educational Zones in Kaduna state. The study adopted pre-test, post-test, control group design. A total number of 300 students were sampled from a population of 1235. Basic technology performance test developed by the researcher was validated by a panel of two experts. Research questions were answered using mean, and standard deviation while, t-test statistics at P = 0.05 coefficient level of significance was used in testing the hypotheses. From the findings of the study, it was confirmed that, in teaching basic technology, the mean academic performance of students exposed to pictures and realia was higher than those taught the same concept using conventional (lecture method) The performance results obtained revealed that there is no significant difference in the performance of student exposed to pictures and realia materials in rural and urban areas but there was significant difference between the mean academic performance of male and female students. Based on the finding of this study, it was recommended that, the use of pictures and realia materials in teaching basic technology in schools should be encouraged. Federal and State ministries of education should intensify effort to make facilities available to teachers also, teachers should be encouraged to attend conferences, seminars, workshops’ and even further studies to widen their scope on picture and realia utilizations in teaching basic technology.
|TABLE OF CONTENTS|
|TABLE OF CONTENT||viii|
|LIST OF TABLES||ix|
|LIST OF APPENDICES||x|
|DEFINITION OF TERMS||xi|
|CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION|
|1.1||Background to the Study||1|
|1.2||Statement of the Problem||5|
|1.3||Objectives of the Study||6|
|1.7||Significance of the Study||7|
|1.8||Scope of the Study||8|
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
|2.3||Types of Instructional Materials||11|
|2.4||Visual Instructional Materials for teaching Basic Technology||11|
|2.5||Sources of Visual Instructional Materials||13|
|2.6||Criteria in Selecting Visual Instructional Materials||14|
|2.7||Characteristics of visual instructional material||16|
|2.8||The concept of Academic Performance||17|
|2.8.1||Gender and Academic Performance||18|
|2.8.2||Factors Affecting Academic Performance in Basic Technology||19|
|2.8.3||Characteristics of Visual Instructional Materials||21|
|2.8.4||Problems of using Visual Instructional Materials in Teaching Basic|
|2.8.5 Solution to the Identified Problems of using Visual Instructional|
|Materials in Teaching Basic Technology||25|
|2.8.7||Summary of Review of related literatures||31|
|CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY|
|3. 3 Population||34|
|3.4||Sample and Sampling Procedures||34|
|3.5||Distributions of sample size||35|
|3.6.1||Validity of the Instrument||35|
|3.6.3.Reliability of the instruments||36|
|3.6.4||Procedure for Data Collection||37|
|3.6.5||Procedures for Data Analysis||37|
|CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS|
|4.2||Analysis and Results Presentation||38|
|4.3||Response to Research Questions||39|
|4.5||Summary of Findings||43|
|4.6||Discussions of Findings||44|
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
|5. 3 Conclusion||47|
|5.5||Contribution of the study to knowledge||48|
|5.6 Limitation of the study||49|
|5.7||Suggestion for further research||49|
1.1 Background to the Study
Basic technology is aimed at exposing students to career awareness by exploring usable options in the world of work and enabling youth to have an intelligent understanding of the increasing complexity of technology. (Osuala, 2004) it is meant to provide the technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for self- reliance. Basic technology is a three year programmes of preparatory instruction in manipulative skills, mathematics, sciences, communicative abilities and leadership skills which prepares individual for self-employment. Some of the instructional programmes of basic technology are; wood work, metal work, electrical/electronic, building architecture/technical drawing.(Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004).
Basic technology, stresses the preparatory aspect of pre-vocational training offered to student at Junior Secondary School level to introduce them into the world of technology and have an appreciation of technology towards interest arousal and choice of a vocation at the end of Junior Secondary School and professionalism later in life.
As a result of this focus, Osuala, (2004) states that, these are components of the general education curriculum which introduces pupils to the elements of technology in order to acquaint them with the role of technology in a contemporary life and permits them to develop basic practical skills in the manipulation of simple tools and materials. This element is also designed for information and guidance purposes for eventual educational and occupational choice.Federal Republic of Nigeria, (2004) refers to those aspects of the educational processes involving the study of technologies and related sciences, and the acquisition of practical skills, attitude, and knowledge relating to occupation in various sectors of economic
and social life. Okorie, (2000) perceives vocational education as any form of education whose primary purpose is to prepare persons for employment in a recognize occupation.
Rocser, (2005) is of the view that, education consists of two components input and output. Input consists of human and material resources while outputs are the goal and philosophy of the educational process. Both the input and output form a dynamic organic whole and if one want to investigate and assess the educational system in order to improve its performance, effects of one component on the other. Pictures and realia are some of the instructional materials which are among the educational input play a vital role in the teaching and learning process. Saima, (2008) for teaching purposes, we can bring fragments of the physical world into the classroom in the form of objects carefully represented in their realistic background “these fragments of the physical world can be termed Realia.
Realia are objects from real life used in the classroom instruction by educators to improve students understanding of other culture and real life situation. These objects are part of instructional kits. Realia are also used to connect learners with the key focal point of a lesson by allowing tactile and multidimensional connection between learned materials and the object of the lesson (Azikiwe, 2011) Realia is sometimes used philosophically to distinguish real things from theories.
Genesce, (2000) noted that, realia is a term for real things, concrete object that are used in the classroom to build background knowledge and vocabulary. Realia is used to provide experiences on which to build and provide students with opportunities to use all the senses in learning while, using realia in the classroom is not always possible, it is usually the best choice if the student is to learn all they can about a topic, realia allows student to see, feel, hear, and even smell the object being explored. If the real things are not available the teacher must move down the continuum from the concrete (real thing) to a replica such as models, to a semi concrete object such as photograph or illustrations.
Genesce, (2000).Identified the following sequential steps in implementing the use of realia in the classroom. Identify opportunities to use realia, be aware of opportunities to include realia in lesson as you plan. Proof read any story to be read aloud or used for reading instruction to identify vocabulary that may be unfamiliar to the students and locate realia that will be helpful to their understanding.
Begin to collect items that can be stored in the classroom and organize them so that, they can be easily accessed for instruction. Plastic tubes, plastic bags are often used for this purpose. Some items will be used with only one theme or book and should be stored. Chris, (2011) Realia means using real items found in everyday life as an aid to teaching. Using realia helps to make lessons memorable by creating a link between theobject and the word or phrase they represents using realia stimulates the mind, and is one way of encouraging creativity by involving the senses. Realia saves time, as recognition of an object is immediate and so cut out the need for lengthy explanation and drawing funny pictures on the board.
Using realia stimulates the mind, encourages creativity by involving sense, realia saves time, and realia makes lessons to be memorable. Ricardo, (2008) defines visual instructional materials as tools used to supplement the written or spoken word in the transmission of knowledge, attitude and idea and to emphasize or clarify the instruction. Olu and Okoye, (2008) opined that, visual instructional materials are all the tools that can be used by the teacher to provide encouragement to learner and learning activities. Adeyemi, (2010), States that, visual instructional materials include all the materials a teacher could use during the lesson to help learning and retention. He further said that, in order to meet individual differences in the classroom, the teacher should employ various types of teaching techniques and aids that would appeal to different senses.
Adesanya, (2011) affirms that, the use of visual instructional materials like textbooks, chalkboard, and models in the classroom brings about efficacy and efficiency in the teaching
and learning process and invariably, promotes and enhances the achievement of instructional objectives. Abdullahi, (2012), refers visual instructional materials to mean all those resources used to supplement the normal learning process of listening, seeing, reading and writing.
Tukur, (2012) stated that, people generally remember 10% of what they read,20% of what they hear,30% of what they see,50% of what they hear and see,70% of what they say,90% what they say and do. Brown, (2011) asserted that, teachers are like medical doctors and other professional workers, they need essential tools and equipment’s to do their work at best.The fundamental factors in any learning situation are always the students and teachers. Thus, the organized combination and utilization of materials facilitates teachers’ presentation of content for the realization of the stated objectives. Richard, (2008) InEdward, (2011) claims that, the more senses contributed in a lesson through the use of visual instructional materials, the more reality is stimulated.
Savory, (2004) added that, a well-planned and imaginative use of visual aids in lessons should do much to supplement the inadequacy of books as well as arouse student interest by giving them something practical to see and do and at the same time helping to train them to think individually. Savory, (2004) suggested a catalogue of useful visual aids that are good in teaching basic technology that is models, pictures (motion) charts. The researcher lamented that, the selection of visual instructional materials which are related to the basic content of a course or a lesson, helps greatly in understanding of such a lesson by the student in that they make the lesson attractive thereby, arresting their attention and thus, motivating them to learn. Wale, (2006) is of the opinion that, the use of visual instructional materials would go a long way in enhancing student performance in basic technology.
Acikgoz, (2005) advocates that, the use of pictures and realia will help children to improve on their thoughts and feelings. The scholar further states that, pictures are used as alternatives to real objects. Abayomi (2008) postulated that, Visual instructional materials
like models, posters, photograph in teaching and learning process, will enhance the interest of individual student and also help to the quality of teachers’ presentation. It is also very vital to have competent and adequate human resources in terms of teachers’ quality for the teaching of not only Basic Technology but all subjects in the school.
Federal Republic of Nigeria, (2004) states that, schools should be properly and uniformly equipped to promote sound and effective teaching. Suitable visual aids, qualified teachers, libraries should be adequately provided for schools. Absence of these visual instructional materials according to Rocser, (2005) will serve as constraints to educational system from responding more fully to new demand in educational process. To improve the quality of education, its efficiency and productivity, despite the role of pictures and realia as instructional materials in teaching basic technology, there is shortage of it in schools or teachers are not effectively utilizing them in teaching. This could be due to costly nature of the material, or lack of technical abilities of using it during the lesson. Thus, this study is carried out to examine the Effect of Pictures and realia on Academic Performance of Junior Secondary School Students in Basic Technology in Kaduna state.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Teachers are faced with obstacles that hinder them from the utilizations of pictures and realia in teaching basic technology in Kaduna state such as insufficient time, non — availability of funds, lack of motivation, creativity skills, It is also apparently known by the researcher that, teachers in rural schools hardly make use of pictures or realia in teaching, and poor utilizations or in effective use of pictures and realia in both rural and urban schools are responsible for poor academic performance in basic technology. Therefore, the desire to embark on this research started right from the observed problem of poor academic performance of students in basic technology.
Abdulkarim, (2010) opines that if students in junior secondary school are to learn basic technology and boost their critical thinking, they should be given the opportunity to learn by practical using variety of learning resources. This will surely enhance their understanding of the subject concept and improve on their performance. Therefore, this study seeks to examine effect of pictures and realia on academic performance of junior secondary schools students in basic technology in Kaduna State”.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
This study has the following objectives:
- To determine the effect of pictures and realia on the academic performance of junior secondary school students in basic technology in Kaduna State.
- Find out the effect of pictures and realia on academic performance of junior secondary school students in basic technology located in urban and rural areas in Kaduna state.
- To investigate the effect of pictures and realia on the academic performance of male
and female students in basic technology in junior secondary schools in Kaduna State Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
This study seeks to find answers to the following research questions:
- What is the effect of pictures and realia on academic performance of junior secondary school students in basic technology in Kaduna state?
- What is the effect of pictures and realia on academic performance of students in basic technology in junior secondary schools located in urban and rural areas in Kaduna state?
- What is the effect of pictures and realia on academic performance of male and female students in basic technology in Kaduna state?
1.5 Null Hypotheses
The researcher formulated the following null hypotheses.
H01: There is no significant difference between the mean academic performances of junior secondary school Students taught basic technology with pictures and realia and those who were not in Kaduna state.
H02:There is no significant difference between the mean academic performances of junior secondary school students exposed to pictures and realia located in urban and rural areas in Kaduna state.
H03:There is no significant difference between the mean academic performance of male and female students taught with pictures and realia in Kaduna state.
1.6 Basic Assumptions of the Study
The following assumptions were made in the course of this study:
- It is assumed that, teachers at junior secondary school level have the proficiency to utilizations of pictures and realia in teaching basic technology in Kaduna State
- Another assumption is that, pictures and realia are vital instructional materials in teaching basic technology at junior secondary schools level in Kaduna state.
- It is equally assumed that, teachers in Kaduna state have access and provided with pictures and realia in teaching basic technology.
1.7 Significance of the Study
As mentioned earlier in the course of this research, the discipline of basic technology is taught at junior Secondary School level as a compulsory subject for graduation of junior secondary school. The study in no small measure assists and guide educational planners and implementers (teachers) in the following ways.
The study serves as a useful document that will enlighten the teachers on the significance or importance of using pictures and realia in teaching basic technology hence, it
aids retention. It’s also a useful document to Educational Resources Centers i.e. (the body responsible for the conduction of junior secondary school examination in Kaduna State) to include the use of pictures and realia as basic instructional materials in teaching basic technology and other related subjects at junior secondary school level in Kaduna State. This research work will immensely help the curriculum developers to incorporate the use of pictures and realia as an important instructional material that will aid retention in teaching Basic technology in Kaduna state. The entrepreneurs benefits by designing and producing pictures and realia to be used in schools thereby getting some financial gains. It is also apparent to know that the result will give policy makers the valuable insight on the importance of using pictures and realia in teaching hence, it promotes creativity in teaching-learning process. It equally identified areas of weaknesses that need improvement. Recommendations arising from the findings of this study will guide the national education policy makers in re-organizing and restructuring the Basic Technology syllabus for Junior Secondary Schools so as to meet student’s needs and interest of the changing Nigerian society.
1.8 Scope of the Study
This research work focused on effect of pictures and realia on the academic performance of junior secondary school students in basic technology in Kachia and Zonkwa educational Zones of Kaduna state. The study covered 10 secondary schools offering basic technology in the mentioned Zones. The schools were selected based on gender and geographical locations. The study was limited to government junior secondary schools only.the use of realia and pictures as visual instructional materials in teaching was used throughout the study . However, the concept covers, common hand tools, types of metals, preservation of woods, magnetism, series and parallel circuits of Junior Secondary School III Syllabus of basic technology.
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