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This study entitled ‗Effects of scaffolding technique on Academic Performance of Students in Peace Education in Colleges of Education in Nasarawa State, Nigeria is aimed at inculcating in learners the right type of attitude, knowledge, and skills to help them resolve conflicts using non-violent approach. The study has three objectives, three research questions, and three corresponding hypotheses. The study used the eclectic approach to situate educational theories underpinning Social Studies Education, Harris‘s (2004) peace education theory, and Vygosky‘s (1978) Zone of Proximate Development (ZPD) explaining scaffolding technique. The population of the study was 1178 involving N.C.E. II Social Studies of C.O.E. Akwanga, and HIILs C.O.E. Gwanje. The sample size of the study is made up of 90 research participant. The research design for the study is the quasi-experimental research design, the reliability index for instrument is .947 and .80 respectively. Hypothesis one and three, were tested with the use of t-test independent statistic, while hypotheses two was tested using ANOVA. Hypotheses one, was rejected while hypotheses two and three were accepted. The findings of the study revealed that: Scaffolding Technique is effective and more superior to the conventional teaching approach in the teaching of peace education. Scaffolding enhances students‘ academic performance through cooperative, autonomous, and independent learning. Scaffolding technique is not gender bias. The study made the following recommendations: Colleges of Education, and teachers should adopt scaffolding technique in teaching because scaffolding technique creates an enabling environment where learners can interact in series of learning activities which can lead to better understanding of concepts. Teachers should teach learners‘ peace education using scaffolding technique, because scaffolding technique allows learners to work in groups, become autonomous, as well as independent learners, this will help in improving their academic performance. Teachers should not discriminate learners based on gender, because scaffolding technique is not gender bias. The study made contributions to knowledge.




ABSTRACT    – -viii
1.1 Background to the Study -1
1.2 Statement of the Problem -7
1.3 Objectives of the Study – -8
1.4 Research Questions -8
1.5 Research Hypotheses -9
1.6. Significance of the Study   -9
1.7 Scope of the Study -10


2.01 Introduction   – –11
2.02. Theoretical Frame Work –13
2.02.1. Peace Education Theory –13
2.02.2 Relative Deprivation Theory – – –14
2.02.3. Theories Underpinning Social Studies Education –15
2.02.4. Theory Underpinning Scaffolding: Vygotsky‘s        
Theory of Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). –17
2.03. Conceptual Elucidation of Social Studies Education –20
2.03.1 Objectives of Social Studies Education –22
2.03.2. Nature and Scope of Social Studies Education –27
2.03.4. History of Social Studies in Nigeria –29
2.03.5. Social Studies in Nigeria –30
2.03.6. Role of Social Studies Education in National Development –33
2.04. Concept of Scaffolding – –36
2.04.1. Features of Scaffolding –38
2.04.2. Role of Teachers in Scaffold –41
2.04.3. Benefit of Scaffolding – –41  
2.04.4. Challenges of Scaffolding –43
2.05. Concept of Cooperative Learning –43
2.05.1. Forms of Cooperative Learning –47
2.05.2 Merit of Cooperative Learning. –49
2.05.3 Teacher‘s Roles in Cooperative Learning –50
2.05.4. Students‘ Roles –50
2.05.5 Challenges Teachers Confront in Cooperative Learning. –51


2.06.   Concept of Autonomous Learning –52
2.06.1. Characteristics of Autonomous Learners –53
2.06.2. Autonomous Learning Activities –54
2.06.3. Teacher Autonomy –58
2.06.4. Interactions between Teachers and Learners in the        
Process of Learning Autonomy –60
2.07. Concept of Independent Learning –61
2.07.1. Benefits of Independent Learning –63
2.07.2. Challenges in Encouraging Independent Learning –65
2.07.3. Students‘ Roles in Independent Learning –66
2.07.4. Teachers Roles in independent learning –66
2.08. Concept of Peace –67
2.08.1. Peace Education –70
2.08.2. Goals of Peace Education -73
2.08.3. Principles of Peace Education – –75
2.08.4. Importance of Peace Education –75
2.08.5. Channels of Peace Education – –78
2.08.6. Forms of Peace Education –78
2.08.7 Peace Education at the at the NCE level and other        
Institutions of Learning –79
2.08.8. Stages of Implementing Peace Education in          
Institutions of learning -81
2.08.10. Roles of Teachers in Peace Education –85
2.08.11. Challenges of Implementing Peace Education in        
Institution of Learning -87


2.09. Human Rights -89
2.09.1. Human Rights in Nigeria –89
2.09.2. Human Right Abuse –91
2.09.3. Violence against Women in Nigeria –92
2.09.4. Gender Inequality and Women Rights -94
2.09.5. Factors Responsible for the Relegation of Women Nigeria –97 Cultural and Religious Restraints –97 Political Restraints –100 Statutory Discrimination –100
2.09.6. Child Rights –101
2.09.7. Human Right Education –102
2.10. Concept of conflicts –103
2.10.1. Sources of conflict –103
2.10.2. Escalation of Conflict – –104  
2.10.3. Level of Conflict –105
2.10.4. Factors Militating Against Peaceful Coexistence        
inNasarawa States of Nigeria – –107
2.11. Concept of Security –113
2.11.1. National Security –117
2.11.2. Sources of Insecurity in Nasarawa States of Nigeria – –117
2.11.3. Nasarawa States and the Challenges of Security –118
2.12. Empirical Related Studies –119
2.13 Summary – – -130
31. Introduction   –131


3.2. Research Design –131
3.3. Population of the Study -132
3.4 Sample and Sampling Procedure –   –133
3.5. Instruments for Data Collection –134
3.5.1. Validity of Instrument. – –134
3.5.2. Reliability of test instrument –135
3.6. Procedure for data collection –135
3.7. Statistical Analysis Procedure -137
4.0 Introduction –138
4.1 Bio-data Variables –138
4.3 Testing of Research Hypothesis –139
4.3.1   Introduction   –139
4.4 Findings of the Study – –144
4.5 Discussion of Results –145
5.1 Introduction –151
5.2. Summary – –151  
5.3. Contribution to Knowledge –152
5.4 Conclusion –152
5.5 Recommendation – –132
5.6 Limitations for the Study – –153
5.7 Suggestions for further Research – –153  


References        –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –154






1.1         Background to the Study


Peace has been the most crucial issue of human existence from its inception. Beginning from the very first recorded murder, of Abel by his brother Cain – the children of Adam and Eve mentioned in the Book of Genesis – the history of war and bloodshed is nearly as old as the history of humankind. Right up to the present day, we continue to witness outbreaks of violence throughout our war-torn global village (Moons, 2002). Globally, human peace integration and security initiatives have increasingly assumed policy priority necessary for good governance. ―Within the frame work of global social system, human peace and security has become a contemporary social issue for understanding global disposition‖ (Bette, Ude. 2011). The advocate of human security and peace building initiative challenge the conventional notion of national security, they argued that the focal point of security should be the individual. They submitted that a people centered security is a necessary condition for national, regional and global stability (Bette, 2011). This view is collaborated by ElBaradei (2006) who postulates that ―human quest for peace is not confine to one region as search for security is still a major concern for people and nations‖. The current picture of peace, integration and security in a global scale is not encouraging, as the world is becoming increasingly insecure.


The terrorist and the extremist are taking the advantage of advance technology to find new ways of engaging with disaffected youths, they utilize the social network site, radical chat rooms and online video channel. As noted by European commission (2014) ―Terrorism in Europe is now found in variety of ideology, this include nationalist and separatist ideology those inspired by Al-Qaida, violent left-wing, anarchist, and right-wing ideology‖. The crises in Ukraine and Syria points to the fact that insecurity, separatist nationalism and lack of peace can serve as the bedrock for the fall of democratic regimes. ―The September 2001 terrorist assaults striking at the heart of the United States of America, the unending spiral of attacks and reprisals between Israelis and Palestinians in the Middle East, and the Kashmir dispute between India and Pakistan, to name but a few (Moons, 2002), are pointers to insecurity across the globe.






Africa is a vast and varied continent, the source of conflict in Africa reflect this diversity and complexity, hence some sources of conflicts are purely internal, some reflect the dynamics of a particular sub-region, and some have important international dimensions‖ (Agrippa and Ezozo, 2009). Journalistic accounts of wars in Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, and several other countries of sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s have raised concern that ethnic cleavages and overlapping affiliations of religion and race may undermine prospects for economic and political development in much of Africa (Osinubi, 2006). The leadership failure in Africa culminate to form the challenges of poverty, corruption, hunger, unemployment which serve as the bedrock for problems of lack peace, integration and insecurity across Africa. The first generation of African leaders had the conviction that political independence would give Africans the opportunity to developed politically, socially and economical, but the reality on ground is contrary to those wild dreams. The devil is in transition‖ (Reycher in Blagojevic 2009), Synder postulate that ―the transition to democracy seem to have facilitated the ethnic conflict, Synder further argued that ―a countries first step towards democracy spur the development of nationalism and heightens the risk of war and internal ethnic conflicts‖ (Synder cited in Blagojevic, 2009).


Nigeria has a land mass of approximately 923,768 square kilometer with an estimated population of 167 million people, it is estimated that there are some 400 ethnic groups of varying sizes and cohesiveness that are to be found in Nigeria. These group for most part, before the British colonial rule had remain largely separated, although some form of interaction inform of trade, religious ties and sometimes politics did occur‖ (Ikimi, 2006; Aniekwe and Kushie, 2011). The negotiations, competition struggle among divers ethnic group in a given state has the capacity to generate conflicts, even though there are some states who have done well recognizing and managing their multi ethnic configuration while others have not make any remarkable progress. ―On October 1, 1960 when Nigeria gained her independence, most African nations thought Nigeria would serve as an example for the rest of the continent. Nigeria could have played that role, but the major setback for the new political development was the introduction of a military regime. Hence, the Nigerian elite started a culture of undemocratic and unaccountable government that has crippled the continent‖ (Agrippa and Ezozo, 2009). The colonial




legacy and military interventions into the political land scape of Nigeria can be argued as


the key factor or a catalyst for the current security challenges the country is witnessing


today. EL Rufai (2013) adds:


a little over five years into Nigeria‘s independence and first republic, a group of young misguided and naïve military officers wipe out nearly all of the nation‘s political leadership. The bulk of those murdered in January 15, 1966 were leaders from regions and ethnic group other than those where the coup plotters hailed from. This led to mass killings, counter coups, and civil war laid to the foundations for Nigeria‘s unfortunate political, economic and social trajectory for the ensuring forty plus years‖.


Similarly,    Falade    and    Falade    (2013)    observed    that    ―immediately  after


independence in 1960, Nigeria witness ethnic based agitation and party politics that


strengthened the ethnic bias and intolerance that existed among people from different part


of the nation‖.   Ethnicity has become a major challenge to Nigeria‘s political, economic


and social development and a threat to peace, national integration and security. ―The


prolong stay of military in power has created a very large vacuum in the constitution


because the law is not applied, instead the military regime use decree to rule‖ (Ayittey,


2012), as a result, an ethnic nationalist in Nigeria see his/her self as members of a


particular ethnic nationality before identifying himself and herself with a nation‖ (Aluko


and Ajani, 2009). This is the justification for the proliferation of ethnic association and


militia groups.


The feeling of attachment to once ethnic group has led to the emergence of ethnic


associations and ethnic militia such as ― Yoruba council of elders (YCE) Odua people‘s


congress (OPC), Arewa consultative forum (ACF), ‗Arewa people‘s congress (APC),


Oheneze Ndigbo; ‗Egbesu Boys‘ ‗Bakassi Boys‘, Middle Belt forum‘ (MBF), movement


for the survival of Ogoni people (MOSOP) South-South people‘s congress, Union of


Niger-delta (UND), (Falade, 2008; Aluko, 2009; Elaigwu, 2013). In addition, there is the


emergence of other new deadly ethnic militia groups such as the Ombatse, Eggon ethnic


Militia. Another dangerous perspective to national peace, integration and security is the


activities of the dreaded group, the Boko haram who kill with impunity. ―Around 2002, a


group of young Muslim adherent from the North-eastern state of Borno and Yobe in





Nigeria declare that Nigerian state as founded on the basis of unbelief or kurf, a reason which justify in their view, a jihad or Holy war against it. With the name ahlul Sunna lidda‘awatiwal jihad, this group‘s abhorrence to anything western, including culture, value, and educational system earned them the pejorative name of Boko Haram which in Hausa language is roughly translated to mean western education is sin‖ (Walker, 2012). The killing of male student in Yobe. The recent kidnapping of over 250 female student in a boarding school at Chibok Borno state by Boko haram is the height of insecurity in Nigeria, it has attracted global outrage and condemnation. There is ‗rain of Bombs‘ everywhere. ―Apart from the bomb blast of Oct. I, 2010, there have been many bomb-blast including those at the police headquarters and the United Nations Office‖ (Elaigwu, 2013). ―The Nyanya bomb blast, which analysts now refer to as the 14/4 bombing, is so far the deadliest attack on the nation‘s capital, ever since a 35-year-old Boko Haram member, Mohammad Manga, detonated his bomb-laden vehicle at Police Headquarters, Abuja, on 16 June 2011‖ (Onuoho, 2014). Back-to-back bomb blast killed at least 118 people and wounded 45 people in the crowded business district of the central Nigerian city of Jos (Reuters, 2014). Nigeria is today in a deep crisis as a result of leadership failure. The result is lack of peace, national unity and security. Citizens in the North-East Nigeria have lost confidence in the government at the center to provide them with security, they have resolve to defend themselves against the rampaging Boko Haram. ―Over 200 Boko Haram terrorist killed by local Borno Villagers in fight back‖ (NigerianWatch, 2014). ―Members of a vigilante group in the Madagali town of Adamawa State did not just killed 70 Boko Haram menbers, but they also captured seven alive who they handed over to the police‖ (FreshGist.com, 2014). This implies that, the legitimacy of government is fast deteriorating. ―The search for ‗national identity‘ and ‗autonomy‘ now challenges The legitimacies of the government and the very existence of the state as these searches are in the form of Arm struggle, formation of ethnic militia, religious and ethnic conflict, and terrorism‖ (Azalahu, Joseph, and Jane 2013). The present Nigerian government have lost the monopoly of the State instrument of violence.

1.2 Statement of the Problem


Scaffolding technique plays important role in teaching and learning processesas revealed by numerous studies. In spite of its importance, scaffolding technique has long being neglected approach in teaching of social studies education. The processes of employing scaffolding technique on the part of learners and explicitly teaching skills on the part of teachers, has been overlooked. This neglect come through strong emphasis on traditional teaching approach. One of the major difficulties facing education sector in Nigeria is the low level of the academic performance of students in local and standardized examinations. It has become a great concern for researchers, educators and stake-holders in the educational sector over the years. It is observed that students usually fail in examinations due to improper teaching technique, motivation and lack of essential teaching aids for instructional delivery.


Against this backdrop, the researcher is motivated to carry out this study with a view to use scaffolding technique to teach peace education to N.C.E social studies students in order to enhance their academic performance. Thus,this study deemed it necessary to look specifically into the Effects of Scaffolding Technique on Academic Performance of Students in Peace Education in Colleges of Education in Nasarawa State, Nigeria.


The problem areas of this study are stated as follows:


  1. Many NCE social studies students lack the strategies to learn cooperatively ina community of learners.


  1. Most learners lack interest in learning autonomously because of the difficulty




they encounter in their attempt to self-initiate learning and taking responsibility of


their learning.


  1. How to make learners learn independently through self-reflection within a


cooperative learning group.


1.3         Objectives of the Study


This study is to investigate the Effects of Scaffolding Technique on Academic Performance of Students in Peace Education in Colleges of Education in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Based on the stated problem of the study, the following objectives were stated:


  1. Find out the effects of scaffolding technique on academic performance ofstudents in peace education in Colleges of Education in Nasarawa State, Nigeria.


  1. Find out if there is difference in the performance of students in Cooperative Learning, Independent learning, and autonomous learning in peace education.


  1. Investigate the effect of scaffolding on the academic performance amongMale and Female students‘ in peace education in colleges of education in Nasarawa state, Nigeria.


1.4         Research Questions


In line with the objectives of the study, the following research questions were




  1. What is the difference in the mean performance score in peace education between students taught peace education with scaffolding strategy and those taught using conventional teaching approach in colleges of education in Nasarawa state?


  1. What is the difference in the mean performance scores of students in peace education after exposure to Cooperative Learning, Independent learning, and autonomous learning?


  1. What is the difference in the mean performance score in peace education between male


and female students‘ taught peace education using scaffolding strategies in colleges of education in Nasarawa state?





1.5         Research Hypotheses


Based on the above stated research questions, the following hypotheses were formulated for the study.


Ho1. There is no significant difference between the mean performance score in peace education between students‘ taught using scaffolding strategy and those taught using conventional teaching approach in colleges of education in Nasarawa state.


Ho2. There is no significant difference between the mean performances scores of students in peace education after exposure to Cooperative Learning, Independent learning, and autonomous learning.


Ho.3. There is no significant difference between the mean performance scores of male and female students‘ taught using scaffolding strategies in colleges of education.


1.6. Significance of the Study


The study is significant because it is expected to:


Help learners to learn cooperatively in the teaching and learning processes.


Help learners to take charge and control of their learning.


Help learners to learn independently,set their learning objectives and become self-reflective.


increased engagement, motivation, and self-efficacy in their academic work Greater student awareness of their limitations and their ability to manage them; enabling teachers to provide differentiated tasks for students; and fostering social inclusion by countering alienation.

It will help to improved communication skills among learners.



The study will give teachers alternative teaching technique when teaching learners a complex concept or topic.


The result of the study may enable curriculum planers to adequately incorporate scaffolding technique in the NCE social studies curriculum.






Book writers may include the result of this study to enrich the contents of their books.


1.7         Scope of the Study


The scope of this study comprised of N.C.E II Social Studies students of Nasarawa state college of education Akwanga, and N.C.E II Social Studies students of Hills College of education Gwanje Akwanga. The study adopted the quasi-experimental research design (quantitative and qualitative methods). The study only focused only on ‗Effects of Scaffolding Technique on the Academic Performance of Students in Peace Education in Colleges of Education in Nasarawa States of Nigeria.




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