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EFFECTS OF THREE TYPES OF FEEDS OF LAYING HENS ON PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE

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ABSTRACT

The effect of different dietary lipids on the number of egg produced by 1000 black laying hens of age 25 weeks were investigated. Laying hens were subjected to different treatments according to the source of lipid added to their diets: soybean oil, beef tallow and a control diet (without the addition of oil). The experiment al design was in 3 by 2 factorial arrangements (three treatments and two different levels-quantity of feed given per day). 500 were given 0.125kg/day for each hen (low) and the remaining 500 were given 0.134kg/day for each as well. The number of eggs laid daily were collected and analyzed. The eggs produced by laying hens on the soybeans oil diet had a largest percentage (90.19%) compare to the laying hens given beef tallow (74.15%) and the laying hen with control diet (63.24%). The feed with the soybeans oil is more efficient at egg production compare with those with beef tallow and the control diet without any addition of oil. Based on these result it was concluded that the amount of eggs laying by birds can be modified by the sources of lipids included in the diet. 

                                        TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title                                                                                                i

Certification                                                                                    ii

Dedication                                                                                      iii

Acknowledgement                                                                           iv

Abstract                                                                                          vi

Table of Contents                                                                            vii

CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL INTRODUCTION

  1. Introduction                                                                           1
    1. Source of Data Collected                                                        2
    1. Justification For The Study                                                    2
    1. Aim and Objectives                                                                3
    1. Definition Of Terms                                                                3
    1. Advantages of Factorial Experiment                                       4
    1. Disadvantages Of Factorial experiment                                           5

CAPTERPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1    Factorial Experiment                                                             6

2.2    Experiments with Factors each at two Levels                                   10

2.3     Birds and Their Feeding                                                                12

2.3.1 Categories of chickens                                                                     12

2.3.2 Egg type Breeds                                                                     12

2.3.3 Meat type Breeds                                                                   12

2.3.4 Dual purpose Breeds                                                             13

2.3.5 Bantam                                                                                  13

vii  

2.3.6 Egg colour of Bird                                                                   13

2.3.7 Feeding                                                                                  13

2.3.8 Protein                                                                                    14

2.3.9 Carbohydrates                                                                       14

2.3.10  Vitamins and Minerals                                                       14

2.3.11   Water                                                                                 14

2.4    Importance of the Poultry Industry                                        15

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY

3.1   Introduction                                                                            16

3.2   Model Equation for Three Factor-Experiments                        17

3.3    Methodology                                                                           18

3.4    Test for Homogeneity of Variances using Bartlett’s Test          23

CHAPTER FOUR: THE ANALYSIS

4.1   Introduction                                                                            26

4.2  The Statistical Model                                                               26

4.3   Hypothesis Setting                                                                  27

4.4    Tables of Totals                                                                      28

4.5    Test for Homogeneity of Variances                                          37

4.6   ANOVA                                                                                    38

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION

5.1    Result and Discussion                                                                    43

5.2    Conclusion                                                                             44

5.3   References                                                                                       45         

viii  

 

Historical Background

Fabrics farm limited Eiyenkorin Afon, Afon Road was established in 2003 with 10 skilled and 40 unskilled workers.

The farm deals with poetry keeping, fish farming, Animal feeds, Animal husbandry, Agronomy practices and marketing of agricultural products.

There are four sections in the farm Administrative, egg production, feed milk and Brooding section with pest sales and marketing department

CHAPTER ONE

1.1   INTRODUCTION

The knowledge of factors of production makes us to understand that rent is the reward of land, wages and salary reward for labour, interest is for capital so as the profit is the reward of entrepreneurship.

Maximization of profit is ongoing topic of interest by the producer of poultry product .these producers are concerned about how birds are to be fed and types of feeding to be given to yield maximum production. For many years, these have been much emphasis on the managing director of any poultry farm.

There are different factors that enhance the production of eggs laid by birds in poultry farm, these include: weather, environment, feeding etc.

Birds have similar digestive system to human being. They need certain nutrients to keep healthy, grow and lay eggs. These nutrients are protein, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals and water.

Oils and fats are concentrated sources of energy essential to the composition of diets of high nutritional density and for maintenance of the calorie / protein equilibrium. When lipids are added to the diet of laying hens, they increased the energy density of the diets improving palatability, reducing the calorie increase of the diet due to protein and carbohydrates increasing the metabolic energy efficiently and improving feed conversion, in addition to enhancing the number of eggs laying.

Beef tallow commonly used in the poultry industry is a by product of cattle slaughter, and is used as energy source in chicken diet.

Soybean oil is another energy source often added to chicken diets, obtained by the processing of raw soybeans.

1.2   SOURCE OF DATA COLLECTED

The data is a secondary data collected from FABIS FARM NIG. LTD. KM 2, EIYENKORIN ROAD AFON. The data covered 12 weeks. The eggs laid by the hen were collected and recorded everyday for twelve weeks.

1.3   JUSTIFICATION FOR THE STUDY

The research will enable the students, farms and researchers to have the knowledge of how to fit a model for factorial design and also to determine the effect of source of lipid added to the composition of laying hen’s diet.

1.4   AIM AND OBJECTIVES

Loss is a great factor that kills business at early stage, in order to avoid such, the idea of maximizing the profit thereby arises.

The aim and objectives of this research work are:

  1. To improve the production of eggs in the poultry farm.
  2. To determine the best combination of feed for laying hen to be more proactive.
  3. To modify the amount of eggs laid by hen.

1.5   DEFINITION OF TERMS

TREATMENT:- A treatment is an entity or phenomenon under study in an experiment.

LEVELS:- These levels of a factor are the values of the factor utilized in the experiment.                                         

RESPONSE:- The response is the variable of interest to be measured in the experiments.                                             

FACTORS:- Factors are those variables whose effect on the response is of interest to the experiment.

EXPERIMENTAL UNITS/ PLOTS:- This is the smallest units to which a treatment is applied and on which an observation is made.                                                 

RANDOM ERROR:- This is error introduced in to the experiment by uncontrollable factors such as natural phenomenon.                                                      

REPLICATIONS:- This refers to the same treatment on different experiment units. Replication makes it opposable asses the mean square error (MSE) requires of the number of replication.            BLOCK:- Blocking means the partitioning the field in to homogenous units. This reduces the extraneous source of variation.

MAIN EFFECT:- The main effect of the factor is to changes in response produced by a change in the height level of that factor averaged over the level of the factors.

INTERACTIONS:- Interaction of the factors A, B is the average different between the effect A at the high level of B and the effect of A at level of B or the response to various level of a factor in the presence of the factors.

1.6   ADVANTAGES OF FACTORIAL EXPERIMENT

  1. All experimental units are utilized in evaluating effects, resulting effects, in the most efficient use of resources
  2. The range of conditions tested can be increased with minimum outlay of resources.
  3. The interaction between factors can be estimated.
  4. A factorial arrangement of treatment is optimum for estimating main effects and interactions

1.7   DISADVANTAGES OF FACTORIAL EXPERIMENT

  1. Very large numbers of combinations are needed to study several factors at several levels.
  2. The large size of the replicates decreases the efficiency of the experiment.
  3. Reduction of the size of the replication means makes statistical analysis more complex and can create confounding.

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