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| Format: Ms Word | 1-5 Chapters | Table of Content|


Study Level: BTech, BSc, BEng, BA, HND, ND or NCE

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Title page    ———————————————————————————-          ii


Declaration   ——————————————————————————–              iii


Certification  ——————————————————————————-              iv


Dedication ———————————————————————————–         v


Acknowledgements ————————————————————————           vi


Table of Contents    ————————————————————————         vii


List of Tables         —————————————————————————            xi


List of Figures   —————————————————————————-           xii


List of Appendices  ————————————————————————           xiii


Operational Definition of Terms ——————————————————–            xiv


List of Abbreviations ———————————————————————-         xv


Abstract—————————————————————————————            xvi






1.1           Background to the study ——————————————————–       1


1.2         Statement of the problem ——————————————————–        4



1.3         Objectives of the study ————————————————————  7



1.4         Research Questions          ———————————————————— 7



1.5         Hypotheses       ———————————————————————          8



1.6       Basic Assumptions —————————————————————–        9



1.7       Significance of the study    ——————————————————— 9






1.8       Scope of the study   —————————————————————– 10





2.1       Introduction      ———————————————————————– 12



2.2       Theoretical frame work ————————————————————  14



2.2.1       Meaning of Performance   ——————————————————- 16



2.2.2   Meaning of Two-dimensional media    ——————————————– 18



2.2.3   Meaning of Conventional Teaching Method   ———————————-  19



2.2.4   Meaning of Teaching         ———————————————————–  20



2.3       Using Two-dimensional Media in Teaching ————————————  22



2.4       Using Conventional Method in Teaching —————————————      24



2.5   Students‟ Performance in Agric Science in Rural Schools ———————- 24



2.6   Students‟ Performance in Agric Science in Urban Schools         —————– 25



2.7   Empirical Studies       ——————————————————————        26



2.8   Summary           ————————————————————————– 28






3.1       Introduction                   —————————————————————  30



3.2       Research Design   ——————————————————————- 30



3.3       Population of the Study              —————————————————– 31




3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique                —————————————— 33



3.5       Instrumentation       ——————————————————————- 33



3.6 Validity of the instrument  ———————————————————-         34



3.7       Pilot Testing     ———————————————————————– 34



3.8         Reliability of the instruments —————————————————— 35



3.9       Procedure for Data Collection      ————————————————– 36



3.10 Data Analysis Technique                 ————————————————              38





4.1      Introduction———————————————————————–                 39



4.2      Hypothesis One———————————————————————– 39


4.2.2Hypothesis Two ———————————————————————-         40



4.2.3 Hypothesis Three ——————————————————————— 41



4.2.4 Hypothesis Four ———————————————————————-  43



4.3      Summary of the Findings        ——————————————————- 44



4.4    Discussions of the Findings          —————————————————-       45





5.1      Introduction             ——————————————————————– 48



5.2      Summary     ————————————————————————— 48





5.3      Conclusion     ————————————————————————— 49



5.4      Recommendations   —————————————————————— 50



5.5      Limitations of the Study      ———————————————————  50



5.6      Suggestions for Further Studies————————————————-             51



REFERENCES   —————————————————————————- 52



APPENDICES   —————————————————————————-         58



















































Table 3.1        Population of the Study —————————————————        32



Table 3.2        Sample of the Study    —————————————————-            33



Table 4.1 Data Analysis 1 ————————————————————–                40



Table 4.2 Data Analysis 2       ————————————————————              41



Table 4.3 Data Analysis 3   ————————————————————-               42



Table 4.4 Data Analysis 4   ————————————————————–             43






Control group: students that are involved in the study who received treatment using conventional teaching method only.


Experimental group: Students involved in the study who received treatment using teaching methods with Two-dimensional media.


Conventional teaching method: Classroom instruction that is based on lecturing, recitation and reading assignments.


Two-dimensional media: They are photographic and non-photographic materials, designed to communicate a massage to the learners. They may incorporate pictures, symbolic visual and verbal cues. Example includes; pictures, drawings, charts graphs, posters, among others.


Rural Schools: These are schools which are located in sparsely populated area outside of the limits of a city or town or a designated commercial, industrial or residential center and are also characterized by farms, vegetation or open spaces.


Urban Schools: These are schools which are located in densely populated area, within the city, town, and a designated commercial, industrial or residential center.






This study is titled‘Effect of Two-Dimensional Media and Conventional Methods of Teaching on Students’ Performance in Agricultural Science in Secondary Schools in


Zaria’. The study aimed at finding out if two-dimensional media when utilized in teaching will improve students’ academic performance. Related literatures were reviewed based on the issues raised in the objectives. The research designed used was Quasi-experimental design. A total of One Hundred(100) SSS I students were tested out of the population of Eighteen Thousand One Hundred and Thirty Eight (18,138) Students, in Twenty Four Government Secondary Schools in Zaria Educational Zone, Kaduna State. Four schools were selected in which two served as experimental and other two schools as control group. Twenty-five students were selected in each school in which fifty students fall on the experimental group and the other fifty on control group. The samples were tested on simple farm tools, farm machinery and implements, survey and planning of farm stead, using academic performance test (APT) as test instrument. Four null hypotheses were formulated, tested and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and paired sample t-test. The findings from the study shows that null hypotheses one and two were rejected on the experimental group at 5% level of significance, while the null hypotheses three and four were accepted on control group of rural and urban students in the study area. Result from the findings revealed that there was significant difference between the test- re -test result of the experimental group with higher mean score of 62.5,66.2 and 47.0,53.9 while the control groups result taught with conventional method shows no difference in their mean score of31.0,31.0in hypotheses three and 40.0,40.2 in hypotheses four respectively. The two-dimensional media were found to be effective in teaching Agricultural Science. It is, therefore, recommended that efforts need to be made by government, curriculum planners, teachers, parents and all stakeholders involved in providing and improvising instructional media in teaching.







1.1         Background to the study


It is a pertinent fact that agriculture has played a very significant role in man‟s civilization. Products such as food, fiber, fuel, raw materials for drugs and many assorted product come from agriculture. Many nations‟ economy has depended on agriculture. For instance, Nigeria in the early 1960s before the „Oil boom‟ depended on agriculture for her economic sustenance. It is the invaluable contributions of the agriculture to our nation that engendered our educationists and government to make provision in the National Policy on Education for practical agriculture in the curriculum of the Senior and Junior Secondary Schools as a core subject (FGN, 1990). Inspite of efforts made to promote agriculture in this wise, its impact is yet to be felt in total. The West African Examination Council and the National Examinations Council, the major examination bodies in Nigeria have been recording poor results from candidates who sit for the examinations on agricultural science. Besides, the enrollment for the examination in agricultural science is on the decline (Bassey,2011). The stakeholders and many more could attribute this to poor methods of teaching, poor implementation of Educational Policies.


According to Ezewu (2007), asserted that government, manufacturers and parents have exhibited concern about the quality of Education that have been acquired by their wards. It is the level and quality of an individual‟s education that is used as parameter to measure and predict the contribution that the individual makes to the society. The effect of what one learns should be seen in the individual, his environment and the society at large. Learning agricultural science, techniques and acquiring skills through various





practicalscarried out in the class and school farms are the basis for this knowledge gained. According to Isangedighi (2007), exposure to training is important if learning must take place.


Learning is refer to as any relatively permanent change in behavior, interpretation or emotional response because of previous experience. Similarly, learning can be defined as a change in behavior or performance which is as a result of experience and practice and which makes individual face later situations differently (Danga,2002). Furthermore, the true test of learning can be seen in the positive improvement of the learner towards a given task. Thus, an individual is assuming to have learnt techniques and skills if there is a remarkable change in his academic performance during and after the course of his study.It can be said that the success of an educational programme can be measured about degree with which its beneficiaries perform academically. Myriad of factors have been known to influence the academic achievement of students in their various school endeavors (Bassey,2011). These factors can either be personal (poor self-concept, motives, readiness, emotions, attitudes and maturational level of the students) or environmental. Studies have identified allied factors such as students‟ individual differences (personal causal factors), teaching learning strategy (system causal factors), family causal factors and the teacher (academic causal factors) to interfere with the performance level of the students. This research work will focus mostly on the teaching / learning strategy (system causal factors). The rate of failure in the public examinations has persistently increased and this has attracted the attention of many stakeholders involved. The belief is that no nation can develop scientifically and technologically without quantitative and qualitative educational system (Alao, 1990).





According to Ogogan (1997), Sight and hearing are the two senses used in most human teaching and learning activities. These senses receive primary consideration in the selection and development of instructional media. The five senses used in teaching and learning include kinesthetic (touch), gestulatory (taste), olfactory (smell), auditory (hearing) and optical (seeing), Aliyu (2001) in Awolola (2004). When these senses are integrated or employed during classroom teaching and learning process, the communication becomes effective. The use of educational media in teaching and learning process is aimed at maximizing the employment of these five senses in classroom communication. Instructional media also promotes effective understanding of the message that is being communicated.The National Policy on Education (NPE,2004), under educational service section 10, has objectives among others to improve learning and the competence of teachers and make learning more meaningful for children. According to the policy, the application of educational technology develops and promotes an effective use of innovative materials in classroom. There are several types of instructional media depending on what to teach, where to teach and the availability of instructional media in that environment. According to Abimbade (1997), instructional media can be classified into three categories: these are non print media, print media and electronic media. The non print media are the projected materials such as films, slides, film strips, while printed materials are books, texts, maps, journals and electronic media which consist of visual, audio and audio visual that rely on electricity to function effectively. All these and many more stimulate the sense of observation in learners. The foundation for the use of instructional media in the school system is to transmit information in the teaching and learning process. Instructional media according to Ajelabi (2000), refers to broad range of






information carrying resources that constitute an integral component of classroom teaching and learning and are utilized in an instructional process with the hope of facilitating effective and efficient communication in teaching and learning process. That is, instructional media are those materials or objects that help the teacher in making the learning more interesting to the learner.


Abimbade (1997), reported that using instructional media in teaching and learning makes students learn more and retain better what they have been taught and that it also promotes and sustains students‟ interests. It also allows the learners to discover themselves and their abilities. Instructional media enrich learners‟ knowledge and reinforce verbal instruction (Ajelabi, 2000). Therefore, when instructional media are used, there is tendency to make classroom environment lively and more interesting.


1.2         Statement of the Problem


When educational policy was review to the 6-3-3-4 system of education in the 1980s, a great deal of prominence was given to the study of agricultural science in the Secondary School Curriculum. However, the objectives of studying agricultural science in primary/post primary schools which among others include: exposing students to gain opportunities in the field of agriculture seems to have been defeated because majority of students openly reject the subject with belief that it is meant for their grandfathers (Agbulu and Olaitan, 2002; Agbulu and Ekele, 2004).


According to (Agbulu and Olaitan, 2002), this apathy towards agricultural science as a profession by the younger generation may continue with advent of high technology where emphasis is being shifted to information and communication technology. If this trend is allowed to continue, achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs),




especially MDG I upon which all other MDGs depend may just be a dream. This is a serious challenge to agricultural science teachers at all levels of education and other stakeholders.


Olaitan (1991), states that „if economic development in Nigeria is to be successful and sustained, agricultural science education among the youths should be established and pursued vigourously‟. This can only be realized if teachers of agricultural science in our schools employ a more pragmatic approach to produce the required manpower in the agricultural sector. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), (2003), noted that agricultural development will be engine room for fighting malnutrition and poverty, and for overall economic expansion. Such advances, however, must be achieved through functional agricultural science education that will stimulate interest in Agriculture at all levels of education thereby producing literates, able bodied and skillful young and productive manpower to increase agricultural production, reduce unemployment, extreme poverty and hunger.


Similarly, according to the Nigerian Millennium Development Goals reports (2005), the school performance level in Nigeria has gradually deteriorated, especially between the age group 15-24 who will be the working force of the nation in the near future. Bonwell and Eison (1999), affirmed that the problem of poor school performance was generally caused by poor method of teaching in schools. It is always the conventional teaching methods (i.e. verbal communication and chalkboard method of instruction). This shows lack of appropriate and adequate application of education technology that could bring about maximum and effective teaching and learning process. This problem raises many questions by concerned citizens and the society. The problem has been attributed to





the government and the people that are running the affairs of the educational system. This is because government made a lot of promises to improve the sector over the years, however, the negligence and the poor implementation of the government policies have contributed to the low standard of education. The teachers have also been blamed because it is often said that they are not professionally qualified and do not use modern innovation of instructional media for delivery of the subject matter (Mezieobi, 2000).Commenting on the attitude of Government to education, Ali (2007), said that the nation fails to improve the school standard in many decades with qualified and trained teachers, necessary teaching materials and its indiscriminate establishment of schools have caused very poor academic performance.


The basic concept to employ in teaching agricultural science hinges on the methodology or approach used in teaching agricultural science. Although, it is an established fact that, no single method or approach is regarded as the best for every teaching situation. Kolo (2007), observes that most of the present crops of agricultural science teachers in our primary and secondary schools encounter pedagogical difficulties because of wrong method of approaches of teaching. Teachers of agricultural science still stick to those antiquated teaching methods where undue emphasis is laid on theory to the detriment of practical that is supposed to equip students with basic skills and knowledge. This, no doubt contributes greatly to the present lack of interest in agriculture by students, which is evident in the low level of enrolment in agriculture, and agricultural related disciplines at all levels of education each year (Kolo, 2007).


It is in view of these problems that this study examined whether or not effective utilization of instructional media with emphasis on two dimensional- media utilization





could enhance students‟ academic performance in Agricultural Science in Secondary Schools in Zaria, Kaduna State.


1.3                         Objectives of the Study


The main objectives of the study are to:



  1. determine students‟ performance usingtwo-dimensional media in teaching Agricultural science in selected rural secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone; Kaduna State;


  1. examine students‟ performance using two-dimensional media in teaching agricultural science in selected urban secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State;


  1. assess the students‟ performance using conventional method in teaching Agricultural Science in selected rural Secondary Schools in Zaria Education Zone; Kaduna State; and


  1. to find  out  students‟  performance  using  conventional  method  in  teaching


Agricultural Science in selected urban Secondary Schools in Zaria Education Zone; Kaduna State.


1.4                         Research Questions


The following research questions were askedto guide the study:



  1. Is there difference in the meanscores of pre-test and post-test results of students taught Agricultural Science using two- dimensional media in selected rural secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State?







  1. What is the difference in the mean scores of pre-test and post-test results of students taught Agricultural Science using two-dimensional media in selected urban secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State?


  • Will the meanscores of pre-test and post-test results of students differ, taught Agricultural science using conventional methods in selected rural secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State?


  1. What is the difference in the meanscores of pre-test and post-test results of students taught Agricultural science using conventional methods in selected urban secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State?


1.5         Hypotheses


The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:



  1. There is no significant difference in the mean scores of pre-test and post-test results of students taught agricultural science using two-dimensional media in selected rural secondary schools in Zaria, Kaduna State.


  1. There is no significant difference in the mean scores of pre-test and post-test results of students taught agricultural science using two-dimensional media in selected urban secondary schools in Zaria, Kaduna State.


  • There is no significant difference in the mean scores of pre-test and post-test results of students taught agricultural science using conventional method in selected rural secondary schools in Zaria, Kaduna State.


  1. There is no significant difference in the mean scores of pre-test and post-test results of students taught agricultural science using conventional method in selected urban secondary schools in Zaria, Kaduna State.


1.6               Basic Assumptions


The study was formed by the assumptions that:



  1. Students taught with two-dimensional media method of teaching Agricultural Science in secondary schools will perform better than those taught with conventional media method.


  1. The students in the study that weresampled have the same exposure to the agricultural science concept through the same method of teaching but are not exposed to two-dimensional media.


  • The use of instructional media like two-dimensional media object in teaching agricultural science subject will improve students‟ performance, compared with conventional teaching method in both rural and urban secondary schools of Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State.


  1. The students‟ performance when taught agricultural science with conventional method will not improve, both in rural and urban secondary schools of Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State.


1.7         Significance of the Study


Instructional resources that are educational inputs are of vital importance to the teaching of any subject in the school curriculum. Walles (1975), was of the opinion that the use of instructional resources will make discovers facts glued firmly to the memory of students. It is in this regard that this study acknowledges its importance to teachers, curriculum planners, parents, students, government and other stakeholders concerned.





  1. This study will help the students to appreciate and have interest towards learning the subject matter. Similarly, students learning which lack teaching resources cannot be effective.


  1. This study will also help the parents to appreciate the value of instructional media in teaching and learning, so that the parents can provide or improvise learning materials (media) for their children.


  • Study like this will also help the parents, curriculum planners, government and all the stakeholders involved, to know the impact or importance of educational media on student performance.


  1. This study will also serve as a reference material for those who may wish to embark on similar research work.


  1. To the teachers, they are for easy impacting knowledge to the students and easy understanding of what has been taught. They will also help teachers to make sure that appropriate and relevant educational media are selected carefully and used for clarification of difficult concepts.


1.8         Scope of the Study


This research work was limited to only fourgovernment secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna state. This is because of the research design that was used for the study. The four schools are selected through random sampling using geographical locations of the schools. Twenty five (25) Senior Secondary School students of each selected schoolsare used for the study, making theonehundred (100) respondents. Thus, the instructional media used for the study was limited to two dimensional media and conventional methodin teaching




agricultural science. The respondent of this research work were limited to student


offering agricultural science.




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Account Name: Emmanuel Idorenyin Samuel.