EQUILIBRIUM ADSORPTION OF 2,4,6-TRICHLOROPHENOL ONTO ACTIVATED CARBON FROM SWEET DATTOCK SHELL
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Adsorption equilibrium refers to when an adsorbent is saturated. It’s a function of the equilibrium concentration in the bulk solution at constant temperature, the amount of solute adsorbed per unit weight. It’s defined by three isotherm models which are; Langmuir, Temkin andFreundlich isotherm models. 2,4,6-TCP is a very toxic substance that severely affect human nervous and respiratory systems causing serious health hazards, its present in the environment has to be curtailed. To address that, optimal activated carbon was produced from sweet Dattock shell (DetariumMicrocarpun) using physiochemical activation method with KOHas the chemical activating agent. The activation was done at temperature of 1037 K and activation time of 2 h. The equilibrium adsorption data were generated from five various forms of linearized Langmiur equations as well as Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherms at various temperatures of 303, 313, 323 K. In comparing the legitimacy of each Isotherms chi square (χ2)was incorporated with the correlation coefficient (R2) to justify the basics for selecting the best adsorption model, with Langmiur 2 the best isotherm model to describe the adsorption of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) on the adsorbent sweet dattock shell activated carbon (SDS-AC) at both the temperatures having the lowest chi square values
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE. 1
1.0 INTRODUCTION.. 1
1.1 Background Study. 1
1.2 What are adsorbents?. 2
1.3.0 Aim and Objectives. 4
1.3.1 Aim: 4
1.4.2 Scope of the study. 5
1.5 Significance of the research. 5
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW.. 7
2.1 Introduction to Activated Carbon and Tri-chlorophenol adsorption. 7
2.1.1 Mechanisms of tri-chlorophenol dsorption: 7
2.1.2 The Process by which 2,4,6-TCP are adsorbed activated charcoal 8
2.1.3 Surface adsorption processes. 9
2.1.4 Toxicity of 2,4,6 –Trichlorophenol(TCP) 10
2.2.0 Selection and Characterization of Activated Carbon ( SDS-AC) 10
2.2.1 Raw Material Selection: 10
2.2.2 Activation Procedure: 11
2.2.3 Analysis of Surface Area and Porosity: 11
2.2.4 Size Distribution of Pores: 11
2.3.0 Processes for Surface Adsorption. 12
2.3.1 Adsorption physically: 12
2.3.2 Adsorption of chemicals. 12
2.3.3 Surface Area and Pore Structure: 12
2.3.4 Surface Functional Groups: 13
2.3.5 Electrostatic Interactions: 13
2.4.0 Physical and Chemical Interactions involved. 13
2.4.1 Physical Interactions: 13
2.4.2 Chemical Interactions: 14
2.4.3 Factors influencing equilibrium adsorption. 15
CHAPTER THREE. 17
3.0 Experimental 17
3.1. Materials and stock solution. 17
3.2 Preparation of activated carbon. 17
3.3. Batch adsorption studies. 18
CHAPTER FOUR. 19
4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.. 19
Table 1; 20
4.1.0 Table 2; Langmuir, Temkin, Freundlich isotherm model parameters correlation and chi square for 2,4,6-TCP on SDS-AC at 303K. 21
4.2.0 Table 3 Langmuir, Temkin, Freundlich isotherm model parameters correlation and chi square for 2,4,6-TCP on SDS-AC at 313K. 22
4.3.0 Table 4 Langmuir, Temkin, Freundlich isotherm model parameters correlation and chi square for 2,4,6-TCP on SDS-AC at 323K. 23
CHAPTER FIVE. 24
5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION.. 24
5.1 CONCLUSION.. 24
5.2 RECOMMENDATION.. 24
Adsorption equilibrium, refers to the balance between the adsorption and desorption of molecules on a surface. It’s like a tug-of-war between molecules sticking to a surface and being released from it .The design and regeneration of the adsorbent depend heavily on the rates of adsorption because sorption and desorption processes are both time-dependent (Azizian 2004).
As a function of the equilibrium concentration in the bulk solution at constant temperature, the amount of solute adsorbed per unit weight of adsorbent is presented in an adsorption isotherm. For the purpose of describing adsorption data, Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms are frequently utilized (Azizianet al., 2004).
Environmental contamination, especially Air pollution, has always been a public concern in plants treatment. The environment and human health have always been at risk from chlorophenol-contaminated sewage that results from anthropogenic activities in many different sectors, such as agriculture, industries (such as mining, battery, nuclear, textile dyes, tannery, etc.), domestic sewage, and others. The destruction of marine habitat, soil degradation that reduces crop yield, and the frequent uptake of heavy metals by plants into food chains that have negative effects on people and animals are the environmental impacts that are felt most immediately (Sankaranet al., 2020).
In the food and beverage sector, adsorption is used to eliminate contaminants and enhance product quality. Activated carbon, for instance, can be used to eliminate undesirable smells, colors, and odors from beverages. Aflatoxin removal from peanuts is one example of how adsorption can be used to remove impurities from food ingredients (Kumar et al., 2021).
One molecule substance is deposited on the surface of another molecular substance through the process of adsorption. The interaction of the two chemicals into the molecular bulk is not a part of this process (Ho et al.,1998)
The phenomenon of particles adhering to a substance’s top layer is known as adsorption. Surface energy is principally responsible for adsorption. It frequently involves the molecules, atoms, or even ions of dissolved gas, liquid, or solid that are connected to the surface. Surface particles that are partially exposed have a tendency to draw other particles near them. Adsorption occurs in a wide range of physical, natural, biological, and chemical systems and has a wide range of industrial uses.
Adsorbents, which include capillaries and pores, are insoluble substances having a liquid covering on their surface. An object, such as a sponge, is considered to be an adsorbent when it has the capacity to store a specific volume of liquid.
Through the adsorption process, adsorbents are utilized in virtually all systems, including chemical, biological, and physical ones. Adsorbents are necessary for chemical absorption, which happens when a substance becomes stuck on a material’s surface. They play a significant role in industry as well, being utilized, among other things, in water filtration, activated charcoal, and synthetic resins. Waste heat can also be transformed by adsorbents into cold water for use in air conditioning and other applications (Sadafet al.,2013)
Maintaining the exterior void area of the adsorbent mass in conjunction with crystalline zeolites and other crystal forms that have a synergistic impact on corrosion can, for example, prevent internal corrosion of metal mufflers and combustion engines. Adsorbent composition is essential in the industry for delaying corrosion in various equipment and machinery, such as mufflers.
Adsorbents are mostly used to treat acute poisoning in medicine. Dialysis and ultrafiltration are examples of alternative extracorporeal techniques based on physicochemical principles that are currently utilized in a more extensive clinical environment(USP et al., 2021)
1.2.1 What is 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol (TCP)
Is a derivative of three chlorines and phenol .Is a carcinogenic solvent usually used as an insecticide or pesticides. It’s harmful and toxic to human health.
A chemical structure of 2,4,6-TCP
2,4,6-trichlorophenols are produced on a large industrial and commercial scale by hydrolyzing chlorobenzenes or chlorinating phenols (Czaplickaet al., 2004). Chlorophenols are produced as intermediate products at some phases of the 2,3-dichlorophenoxyacetate acid manufacturing process (Kent and James, 1983). Information about the method of wood pulp bleaching that led to the production of chlorophenols was provided Chlorophenols are produced on a large industrial and commercial scale by hydrolyzing chlorobenzenes or chlorinating phenols (Czaplicka, 2004). Chlorophenols are produced as intermediate products at some phases of the 2,3-dichlorophenoxyacetate acid manufacturing process (Kent and James, 1983). Information was also disclosed regarding the procedure by which the bleaching of wood pulp led to the production of chlorophenols (Kringstad and Lindstrom, 1984). According to reports, the main industrial sources of these chemicals in wastewater include the pharmaceutical, petrochemical, plastic, wood preservation, pesticide, iron, steel, textile, and paper industries (Eslamiet al.,2016).
- To prepare the activated carbon.
- To fit the equilibrium adsorption data into various linearized isotherms.
- To study the equilibrium process of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol adsorption onto prepared activated carbon from sweet dattock shell.
1.4.1 Problem of the research
Adsorption is particularly useful for removing impurities that are extremely harmful to the body system. Chrolophenols affect the human respiratory system, causing a number of health hazards. It is persistent in the environment, with a strong odor and poor biodegradability, as well as toxic and carcinogenic properties. Chlorophenols are a common compound found in everyday life. They are found in most industrial effluents, particularly those from the paper and textile industries. Because these compounds are toxic, their removal from waste water is critical. The toxicity of chlorophenols in the environment includes the burning of urban waste, the combustion of organic matter, and the biodegradation of pesticides. As a result, it is critical to remove those chlorophenol contaminants to protect human health, it also has a harmful impact on the ecosystem.
- To prepare the activated carbon.
- To study the equilibrium process of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol adsorption onto prepared activated carboN from sweet dattock shell.
- To fit the equilibrium adsorption data into various linearized isotherms
The results of this study will be extremely useful in understanding the equilibrium study of 2,4,6-TCP adsorption onto activated carbon. The adsorption procedure might be improved using this knowledge, and its negative effects on the environment could be reduced.
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